Division of Global Health

The Division of Global Health (DGH) at MassGeneral Hospital for Children includes energetic faculty members and senior research fellows. The Division's primary mission is to build and foster international partnerships for interdisciplinary research, education and service to reduce health disparities and achieve optimal health for children and adolescents in resource-limited settings of the developing world. Our multidisciplinary team of faculty has significant experience working in the global arena, and in mentoring and teaching future leaders in global health.

Overview

Faculty in the Division of Global Health are tackling some of the most perplexing challenges in global health delivery and care, prevention and capacity-building in countries around the world. Please read about them in greater detail in "Research Projects."

Group Members

Core Faculty

Jason Harris, MD, MPH

Dr. Harris is a pediatric infectious disease specialist with an interest in host-pathogen interactions in bacterial enteric infections.  He received his M.D. from Duke University and M.P.H. from the Harvard School of Public Health. He was a pediatric resident and chief resident at the Massachusetts General Hospital and was a pediatric infectious disease fellow at Boston Children's Hospital.  To better understand the human immune response to cholera and enteric fever, our group has been working in collaboration with investigators at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research in Dhaka, Bangladesh (since 2003) and in collaboration with investigators at Partners In Health in Haiti (since 2010). 


Jennifer Kasper, MD, MPH

Jennifer Kasper, MD, MPH

Dr. Kasper is an attending pediatrician at MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Instructor at Harvard Medical School and Board Member of Doctors for Global Health. Her diverse global health expertise includes health service delivery; rural community development; complex humanitarian emergencies; field-based operations research; health system strengthening; and curriculum development, training and mentorship of community health workers and other health professionals. She has worked in numerous countries, including El Salvador, Mexico, Haiti, India, Mozambique and South Africa. She received a combined BA/MD with honors from Boston University/Boston University School of Medicine and an MPH from Boston University School of Public Health. Dr. Kasper works clinically at the MGH Chelsea HealthCare Center; co-directs “The Introduction to Social Medicine and Global Health” at Harvard Medical School; and is the Chair of the HMS Faculty Advisory Committee on Global Health. She was the recipient of the HMS/HSDM Deans’ Community Service Lifetime Achievement Award for her nearly two decades work with Doctors for Global Health. She was also a nominee for the HMS Donald O’Hara Faculty Prize for Excellence in Teaching. She is a co-editor of the MGHfC Handbook of Pediatric Global Health.


Ann Kao, MD, MPH, DTM&H

Ann Kao, MD, MPH, DTM&H

Dr. Kao is currently the co-director of the Pediatric Hospitalist Division at MassGeneral Hospital for Children, and she attends on both the Adult Internal Medicine and Pediatric services at Massachusetts General Hospital. She has previously worked on various projects, most recently in Ecuador as part of an effort to increase services to developmentally disabled children. She has also led a team in a healthcare project for children in Panama supporting a local NGO, Pro Ninez. In 2005, she worked on behalf of the Tsunami Relief effort as part of Project Hope. Dr. Kao was also a Mass General Durant Fellow in Refugee Medicine traveling to Rwanda, where she started up a health center and hospital in a refugee camp working with American Refugee Committee and UNHCR in 2007-2008. She has also worked in Romania and Vietnam, and she was a pediatric clinical advisor to the Cambodian Health Committee. Domestically, Dr. Kao has worked at a Navajo Reservation in Chinle, AZ, and an urgent care clinic in Chelsea, MA, serving a population largely consisting of immigrants from Latin America. She received the University of Washington School of Medicine Alumni Humanitarian award in 2007. Dr. Kao received her medical degree with honors from the University of Washington, and completed her combined residency in internal medicine and pediatrics at Massachusetts General Hospital, MassGeneral Hospital for Children and Children’s Hospital Boston. She received an MPH from the Harvard School of Public Health 


Peter Moschovis, MD, MPH

Peter Moschovis, MD, MPH

Dr. Moschovis graduated from the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine and trained in Internal Medicine/Pediatrics at Massachusetts General Hospital.  He completed clinical training in pulmonary and critical care medicine in the Harvard Combined Pulmonary/Critical Care Fellowship, and is currently a global health research fellow in the Division of Global Health under the mentorship of Dr. Patricia Hibberd.  Dr. Moschovis’ global health research focuses on treatable risk factors for childhood pneumonia and adult chronic respiratory disease.  Together with collaborators in Uganda, he is principal investigator for a study of risk factors for poor outcomes in childhood pneumonia.  He is also involved in a training initiative for pulmonary medicine in Uganda.


Brett D. Nelson, MD,   MPH, DTM&H

Brett D. Nelson, MD, MPH, DTM&H

Dr. Nelson is an attending pediatrician and global health faculty at MassGeneral Hospital for Children and an Assistant Professor at Harvard Medical School. His professional interests are health care provision, development, research, and advocacy for vulnerable populations, particularly newborns and children in settings affected by poverty, conflict, or disaster. He helped establish the nation’s first Pediatric Global Health Fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital and was its first fellow. Dr. Nelson has advanced degrees in public health (Johns Hopkins) and tropical medicine (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). He has been involved in pediatric care, academic research, program management, and global health consultancy in dozens of resource-limited areas while working for organizations, such as the Centers for Disease Control, International Rescue Committee, International Red Cross and Red Crescent, UNICEF, Médecins Sans Frontières, Johns Hopkins, and Harvard University. Recently in Liberia, Dr. Nelson served as country’s Senior Pediatrician and as the Interim Chair of the Department of Pediatrics and Newborn Medicine for the country's sole teaching hospital. He currently leads newborn and child health programs in several countries in East and West Africa. Dr. Nelson works clinically as a newborn hospitalist, and he co-directs a course at Harvard Medical School on tropical diseases and global health. He is the Editor of the new Wiley-Blackwell medical textbook, Essential Clinical Global Health.


Kate Powis, MD, MPH, MBA
Kate Powis, MD, MPH, MBA

Dr. Powis graduated from Medical College of Virginia and completed a combined Internal Medicine – Pediatrics Residency Program at Massachusetts General Hospital and Boston Children’s Hospital. During residency she worked with the International Organization of Migration to rehabilitate the primary health care system in the Province of Aceh, Indonesia following the devastating earthquake and tsunami of 2004. This project, conducted in coordination with the Indonesian Ministry of Health and local health authorities, led to a second focused project addressing the high maternal and neonatal mortality rate in the Province. After residency, Dr. Powis completed a Global Women’s Health Fellowship through the Connors Center for Women’s Health and Gender Biology at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. During her fellowship, she obtained her MPH at Harvard School of Public Health.  Since 2008, Dr Powis has Botswana with Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, spending six months out of each calendar year in Botswana.  She focused on research projects primarily involving HIV-infected women, pregnancy, pregnancy outcomes and the health of children born to HIV-infected mothers.  Recently, she served as the Principal Investigator on a CDC funded study, carried out in collaboration with Botswana Ministry of Health to investigate the determinants of malnutrition in children under the age of 5.  When she is in Boston, she attends on the Adult Inpatient Medicine Service, Pediatrics and MGH Chelsea Urgent Care.


Kevin Schwartz, MD

Dr. Schwartz is a Pediatric Hospitalist and Pediatric Emergency Medicine faculty member at MassGeneral Hospital for Children.  He attended the University of Massachusetts Medical School, completed his Pediatric Residency at MassGeneral Hospital for Children, completed a Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellowship at Boston Medical Center and completed one year of clinical training in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology at Hasbro Children's Hospital before returning to MGHfC.  Dr. Schwartz is co-founder and US Executive Director of The Child is Innocent, a non-governmental organization that provides educational opportunities and leadership development training to children from Northern Uganda.  During his Emergency Medicine fellowship, he conducted research in innovative curricula to prepare US pediatric and emergency medicine residents for clinical work abroad.  He has worked in Liberia to expand pediatric medical student and resident education in collaboration with pediatric faculty there.  His current research interests include medical education in global health and the acute management of tropical disease and the adaptation of pediatric oncology treatment protocols to low and middle-income health care settings.

Research Projects

Reducing Asphyxia-Related Perinatal Mortality in Resource-Limited Settings

Brett D. Nelson, MD, MPH, DTM&H, and collaborators are committed to addressing the leading causes of mortality during the most dangerous time in life: the few moments around birth. Each year, nearly 3 million newborn deaths and 3 million stillbirths occur worldwide. The vast majority of these perinatal deaths occurs in low- and middle-income countries and are most commonly a result of asphyxia (intrapartum-related complications), infection, prematurity and birth complications. Nearly all of these deaths are preventable. However, there has been limited success in implementing proven interventions in resource-limited settings. A critical next step in reducing millions of annual perinatal deaths is assessing barriers to the successful introduction and sustainability of proven interventions. With this aim in mind, Dr. Nelson is currently leading the critical evaluation of country-level newborn training programs in East and West Africa.

Analysis of the Effects of In-Utero Antiretroviral Exposure on Longitudinal Growth of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants in Botswana

Kate Powis, MD, MPH, MBA, is an investigator in two NIH-funded Botswana-based randomized controlled trials which investigated mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. She is using data collected in the Mashi and Mma Bana studies to evaluate any difference in growth patterns over the first 24 months of life for HIV-exposed uninfected infants born to HIV-infected women who either took three antiretroviral drugs or zidovudine during pregnancy for prevention of MTCT.

Research on the Issues Surrounding HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Their Infants:

Kate Powis, MD, MPH, MBA, is a co-investigator in two NIH-funded Botswana-based randomized controlled trials (RCT):

  • The Mpepu study initiated enrollment in May 2011 and with over 2,500 HIV-infected women and their HIV-uninfected infants enrolled thus far and total planned accrual of approximately 3,700 mother-infant pairs. Infants will be randomized to daily cotrimoxazole (CTX) or placebo from as early as 14 days of life through 15 months of life. For mothers opting to breastfeed, infants will be randomized to 6 or 12 months of breastfeeding. Infant HIV-free survival will be analyzed at 18 months of life based upon randomization to CTX or placebo. Additionally, 2010 revised World Health Organization guidelines recommending 12 months of breastfeeding in resource-limited settings, the Mpepu study will be the first randomized controlled trial to provide evidence-based outcomes of HIV-transmission rates and HIV-free survival outcomes comparing 6 months to 12 months of breastfeeding.
  • Early Infant Treatment: HIV-exposed infants born in selected hospitals in Botswana will undergo HIV testing on day of birth.  Any infants found to be HIV-infected will be initiated on treatment within 24 hours of a positive result and followed through at least two years of life.  This study will establish PK levels of antiretroviral drugs in the first weeks of life in order to devise safe dosing guidelines and will explore whether or not early initiation of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected infants prevents the establishment of viral reservoirs.

Determinants of Malnutrition in Botswana among Children under the Age of 5

  • This cross sectional study enrolled infants and children under the age of 5 attending well-child visits at government health facilities in Botswana, along with their caregivers in 2013 and 2014.  Over 1,600 child-caregiver pairs were enrolled in the study.  Anthropometric measures were obtained from the infant/child, their health records were abstracted and socio-demographic information was solicited from their caregiver.  This study represents a collaboration between Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Botswana Ministry of Health and Massachusetts General Hospital. Results of the study are being used by Botswana Ministry of Health to alter national healthcare and nutrition policies.  The dataset from the study is available to interested residents for smaller research projects/publications.  Interested residents should contact Kate Powis at kpowis@mgh.harvard.edu.

Evaluating the prevalence and causes of anemia amongst females in India using needleless technology

Nupur Gupta MD, MPH

Anemia is a major contributor to maternal and child death. It is a preventable cause of mortality and morbidity, yet it continues to affect a third of the world’s population and causes 68 million disability adjusted life years (DALYS). The prevalence of anemia in India is staggering, with estimates suggesting that 88% of pregnant women, 55% of non-pregnant women, and 70% of children under-5 are affected. Iron-deficiency anemia increases risk of preterm labor and low birth rate, child and maternal mortality; negatively impacts the cognitive development and physical growth of children, and weakens both the mother and child's immune response to infection. Amongst adolescent girls, physical growth and menses can aggravate anemia and place young girls at risk for complications and mortality during their pregnancy. Anemia during pregnancy can contribute to maternal death by exacerbating hemorrhage, septicemia, eclampsia, and cardiac arrest. In India although anemia has long been recognized as a problem four decades of efforts have failed to make a significant impact on the burden of this disease. Also the adolescent female population has been left out of both national data collection efforts and interventions. Adolescence is an ideal time for detection and correction of anemia prior to pregnancy. In many states in India the average age at marriage for girls is 15 years old, and by 19 years of age, 36% of women have begun childbearing, making the adolescent years an essential time for intervention. Accurate measurement of anemia is essential to providing adequate care and treatment.   Clinical examination and current measures employed are inaccurate and require a pinprick, which may cause pain, discomfort and increased risk of infection for the participants. There is a critical need for accurate and acceptable hemoglobin monitoring tools for resource-limited settings, accurate prevalence data in adolescent females and an understanding of the factors contributing to poor compliance of iron folic acid interventions.  The Pronto-7 device (Masimo) is a FDA approved pulse oximeter that provides accurate hemoglobin estimation. 

The objectives of the study are the following:

  • Determine the prevalence of anemia amongst adolescent girls and pregnant women, using the FDA approved Pronto-7 device,
  • Elucidate factors contributing to the high burden of anemia, as well as reasons that current interventions are failing to achieve a significant impact.

The results of the study will help us lay the foundation for a culturally acceptable educational or incentive based program aimed toward eradication of anemia in rural female population in India.  Eliminating iron-deficiency anemia in this population will help reduce maternal and child mortality.  

Publications

Jason Harris, MD, MPH

Selected references since 2010

  1. Chin CS, Sorenson J, Harris JB, Robins WP, Charles RC, Jean-Charles RR, Bullard J, Webster DR, Kasarskis A, Peluso P, Paxinos EE, Yamaichi Y, Calderwood SB, Mekalanos JJ, Schadt EE, Waldor MK. The origin of the Haitian cholera outbreak strain. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jan 6;364(1):33-42. Epub 2010 Dec 9. PMID: 21142692
  2. Kuchta A, Rahman T, Sennott EL, Bhuyian TR, Uddin T, Rashu R,  Chowdhurry F, Kahn AI, Arifuzzaman M, Weil AA, Podolsky A, LaRocque RC, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB, Qadri F, Harris JB. Vibrio cholerae O1 Infection Induces Pro-inflammatory CD4+ T Cell Responses in Blood and Intestinal Mucosa of Infected Humans. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011 Aug;18(8):1371-7. Epub 2011 Jun 22. PMID:21697339
  3. Shin OS, Uddin T, Citorik R, Wang JP, Della Pelle P, Kradin RL, Bingle CD, Camilli A, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB, Finberg RW, Qadri FQ, LaRocque RC, Harris JB. LPLUNC1 Modulates Innate Immune Responses to Vibrio cholerae. J Infect Dis. 2011 Nov; 204(9):1349-57. Epub 2011 Sep 7. PMID:21900486         
  4. Weil AA, Ivers LC, Harris JB. Cholera: lessons from Haiti and beyond. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2012 Feb;14(1):1-8. PMID: 2217993
  5. Harris JB, LaRocque RC, Qadri F, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB. Cholera. The Lancet. 2012 Jun 30;379(9835):2466-76. PMID: 22748592
  6. Patel SM, Rahman MA, Mohasin M, Riyadh MA, Leung DT, Alam MM, Chowdhury F, Khan AI, Weil AA, Aktar A, Nazim M, Larocque RC, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB, Qadri F, Harris JB. Memory B cell responses to Vibrio cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide are associated with protection against infection in household contacts of cholera patients in Bangladesh. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012 Apr 18. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22518009
  7. Karlsson EK, Harris JB, Tabrizi S, Rahman A, Shlyakhter I, Patterson N, O'Dushlaine C, Schaffner SF, Gupta S, Chowdhury F, Sheikh A, Shin OS, Ellis C, Becker CE, Stuart LM, Calderwood SB, Ryan ET, Qadri F, Sabeti PC, Larocque RC. Natural selection in a Bangladeshi population from the cholera-endemic Ganges river delta. Sci Transl Med. 2013 Jul 3;5(192):192ra86. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3006338. PMID:23825302
  8. Rahman A, Rashu R, Bhuiyan TR, Chowdhury F, Khan AI, Islam K, LaRocque RC, Ryan ET, Wrammert J, Calderwood SB, Qadri F, Harris JB. Antibody-secreting cell responses after Vibrio cholerae O1 infection and oral cholera vaccination in adults in Bangladesh. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013 Oct; 20(10):1592-8. PMID:23945156
  9. Charles RC, Hilaire IJ, Mayo-Smith LM, Teng JE, Jerome JG, Franke MF, Saha A, Yu Y, Kováč P, Calderwood SB, Ryan ET, LaRocque RC, Almazor CP, Qadri F, Ivers LC, Harris JB. Immunogenicity of a Killed Bivalent (O1 and O139) Whole Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine, Shanchol, in Haiti.  PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 May 1;8(5):e2828. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002828. eCollection 2014 May.PMID: 2478664
  10. Seed KD, Yen M, Shapiro BJ, Hilaire IJ, Charles RC, Teng JE, Ivers LC, Boncy J, Harris JB, Camilli A. Evolutionary consequences of intra-patient phage predation on microbial populations. Elife. 2014 Aug 26;3:e03497. doi: 10.7554/eLife.03497. PMID: 25161196

Jennifer Kasper, MD, MPH

  1. Kasper J, Meyers AF. The UDHR and the physician’s role. Lancet 1998;352:733.
  2. Kasper J, Gupta SK, Tran P, Cook JT, Meyers AF. Hunger in Legal Immigrants in California, Texas, and Illinois. Am J Public Health. 2000;90:1629-1633.
  3. Kasper J and Physicians for Human Rights. Hungry at Home: Hunger among Legal Immigrants in the United States. Boston: Physicians for Human Rights; October 2000.
  4. Kasper J, Wise PW. The Relevance of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child for United States Domestic Policy: Welfare Reform and Children in Immigrant Families. Health and Human Rights. 2001;5(2):64-90.
  5. Physicians for Human Rights Child Rights Group (Venkateswarlu D, Kasper J, Matthews R, Reis C, Iacopino V, Wise PW). Child labour in India: a health and human rights perspective. Lancet. 2003;362(Supp1):31-33.
  6. Kasper J. Pediatrician and the rights of the child. UN Convention provides blueprint for monitoring the well-being of children worldwide. Pedi Annals. 2004;33(10):712-715.
  7. Kasper J, Parker D. Child Labor. In: Heggenhougen K, Quah S, eds. Encyclopedia of Public Health. Vol 1. San Diego: Academic Press; 2008. pp. 583-590.
  8. Kasper J. Orphans due to AIDS. In: Heggenhougen K, Quah S, eds. Encyclopedia of Public Health. Vol 4. San Diego: Academic Press; 2008. pp. 693-700.
  9. Kasper J, Smith CL. The Experience of Doctors for Global Health: Liberation Medicine and Accompaniment in El Salvador. In: Beracochea E, Weinstein C, Evans D, eds. Rights-Based Approaches to Public Health. New York: Springer Publishing Co; 2010.
  10. Kasper J. The relevance of U.S. ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child for child health: A matter of equity and social justice. Child Welfare. 2010;89(5):21-36.
  11. Kasper J, Bajunirwe F. Brain drain in sub-Saharan Africa: Contributing Factors, Potential Remedies, and the Role of Academic Medical Centers. Arch Dis Child. 2012;0:17. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2012-301900
  12. Nelson BN, Kasper J, Hibberd PL, Thea DM, Herlihy JM. Developing a Career in Global Health: Considerations for Physicians-in-Training and Academic Mentors. J Grad Med Educ. 2012:301-307. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4300/JGME-D-11-00299.1
  13. Smith CL, Kasper J, Holtz TH. Doctors for Global Health: Applying Liberation Medicine and Accompanying Communities in Their Struggles for Health and Social Justice. In: Birn AE, Brown TM, eds. Comrades in Health: U.S. Health Internationalists, Abroad and at Home. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press; 2013. pp. 268-285.
  14. Kasper J, Smith CL. Doctors for Global Health and Santa Marta, El Salvador: An Example of Liberation Medicine and Accompaniment. In: Krasnoff MJ, ed. Building Partnerships in the Americas: A Guide for Global Health Workers. New Hampshire: University Press of New England; 2013.
  15. Kasper J, Ringel N. Stakeholders and Approaches to Pediatric Global Health. In: Gupta N, Nelson B, Kasper J, Hibberd PL, eds. MGHfC Handbook of Pediatric Global Health. New York: Springer Science + Business Media;2014.
  16. Tanpowpong P, Messner S, Kasper J, Kleinman R. Malnutrition. In: Gupta N, Nelson B, Kasper J, Hibberd PL, eds. MGHfC Handbook of Pediatric Global Health. New York: Springer Science + Business Media;2014.
  17. Kasper J, Gupta N, Hunter AJ, Nelson BD. Care of the Child Immigrant. In: Gupta N, Nelson B, Kasper J, Hibberd PL, eds. MGHfC Handbook of Pediatric Global Health. New York: Springer Science + Business Media;2014.
  18. Gupta N, Nelson B, Kasper J, Hibberd PL, eds. MGHfC Handbook of Pediatric Global Health. New York: Springer Science + Business Media;2014.
  19. Kasper J, Ugwi P, Ringel N. Health Systems in Resource-Limited Settings. In: Nelson B, et al, eds. Essential Clinical Global Health. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Co. In Press.

Peter Moschovis, MD, MPH

  1. Gordon SB, Bruce NG, Grigg J, Hibberd PL, Kurmi OP, Lam KB, Mortimer K, Asante KP, Balakrishnan K, Balmes J, Bar-Zeev N, Bates MN, Breysse PN, Buist S, Chen Z, Havens D, Jack D, Jindal S, Kan H, Mehta S, Moschovis PP, Naeher L, Patel A, Perez-Padilla R, Pope D, Rylance J, Semple S, Martin WJ 2nd. (2014) Respiratory risks from household air pollution in low and middle income countries. Lancet Respir Med. 2014 Sep 2. pii: S2213-2600(14)70168-7. 
  2. Moschovis PP, Banajeh S, MacLeod W, Saha S, Hayden D, Christiani DC, Mino G, Santosham M, Thea D, Qazi S, Hibberd PL.  (2013) Childhood anemia at high altitude: risk factors for poor outcomes in severe pneumonia.  Pediatrics. Epub 2013 Oct 7.
  3. Archer N, Moschovis PP, Le PV, Farmer P. (2011) Post-earthquake Haiti renews the call for global health training in medical education. Acad Med;86(7):889-91. 

Brett D. Nelson, MD, MPH, DTM&H

  1. Nelson BD, Simić S, Vuković V, Bjegović V, VanRooyen MJ. Evaluation of primary healthcare system needs in Serbia using qualitative methodology: a preliminary report. Serbian J of General Med. October 2001; 7(3-4): 145-148.
  2. Nelson BD, Dierberg KL, Mitrović M, Vuksanović M, Milić L, Michael J. VanRooyen. The Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies for the Evaluation of Emergency Medicine in Post-conflict Serbia. ABC: Serbian J of Emerg Med. October 2002; 2: 17-22.
  3. Nelson BD, Simić S, Beste L, Vuković D, Bjegović V, VanRooyen MJ. A Multimodal Assessment of the Primary Health Care System of Serbia: A Model for Evaluating Post-Conflict Health Systems. J Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. January-March 2003; 18(1):6-13.
  4. Nelson BD, Fernandez WG, Galea S, Sisco S, Dierberg K, Gorgieva GS, Nandi AK, Ahern J, Mitrović M, VanRooyen MJ, Vlahov D. War-related psychological sequelae among emergency department patients in the former Republic of Yugoslavia. BMC Medicine. 2004; 2:22.
  5. Nelson BD, Dierberg K, Mitrović M, Vuksanović M, Milić L, VanRooyen MJ. Integrating quantitative and qualitative methodologies for the assessment of health care systems: emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia. BMC Health Services Research. 2005; 5:14.
  6. Mills EJ, Singh S, Nelson BD, Nachega JB. The impact of conflict on HIV/AIDS in Africa. International J STD & AIDS. 2006; 17(11):713-717.
  7. Nelson BD, Herlihy J, Burke TF. A proposal for fellowship training in pediatric global health. Pediatrics. 2008; 121:1261-1262.
  8. Nelson BD, Lee AC, Newby PK, Chamberlin MR, Huang C. Global health training in pediatric residency programs. Pediatrics. 2008; 122(1):28-33.
  9. Stanton B, Huang C, Armstrong RW, Sectish TC, Palfrey J, Nelson BD, Herlihy JM, Alden E, Keenan W, Szilagyi P. Global health training for pediatric residents. Pediatric Annals. 2008; 37(12):786-7, 792-6.
  10. Balsari S, Lemery J, Williams TP, Nelson BD. Protecting the Children of Haiti. New Eng J Med. 2010; Feb 17 Epub 10.1056/NEJMp1001820.
  11. Nelson BD, Getchell M, Rosborough S, Atwine B, Okeyo E, Wall E, Greenough PG. A participatory approach to assessing refugee perceptions of health services. World Health and Population. 2010; 11(4):13-22.
  12. Olson KR, Caldwell A, Nelson BD. Newborn-care training in developing countries: letter to the editor. N Eng J Med. 2010; 362:2427-2428.
  13. Rouhani S, Meloney L, Ahn R, Nelson BD, Burke TF. Systematic literature review of alternative rehydration methods: Lessons for resource-limited care. Pediatrics. 2011 March; 127(3):e748-57.
  14. Nelson BD, Saltzman A, Lee PT. Bridging the global health training gap: Design and evaluation of a new clinical global health course at Harvard Medical School. Medical Teacher. 2011 May 19.
  15. Nelson BD, Fehling M, Eckardt MJ, Ahn R, Tiernan M, Purcell G, Bell S, El-Bashir A, Walton EK, Ghirmai E, Burke TF. Maternal, Newborn, and Child Survival (MNCS): An innovative training package for building frontline health worker capacity in South Sudan. South Sudan Medical Journal. November 2011; 4(4).
  16. Nelson BD, Collins L, VanRooyen MJ, Joyce N, Mukwege D, Bartels S. Impact of sexual violence on children in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Medicine, Conflict and Survival. 2011 October-December; 27(4):211-25.
  17. Nelson BD, Ahn R, Fehling M, Eckardt MJ, Conn KL, El-Bashir A, Tiernan M, Burke TF. Saving maternal, newborn, and child lives in developing countries: Evaluation of a novel training package among frontline health workers in South Sudan. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2012 April, supplement; 19(4):S6-S7.
  18. Eneriz-Wiemer M, Nelson BD, Bruce J, Chamberlain LJ. Global health training in pediatric residency: A qualitative analysis of faculty director insights. Academic Pediatrics. 2012 May; 12(3):238-44.
  19. Al-Obaidi AK, Nelson BD, Al Badawi G, Hicks MH, Guarino AJ. Child mental health and service needs in Iraq: Beliefs and attitudes of primary school teachers. Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 8 May 2012.
  20. Nelson BD, Izadnegahdar R, Hall L, Lee PT. Global health fellowships: A national, cross-disciplinary survey of U.S. training opportunities. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2012 June; 4(2):184-89.
  21. Nelson BD, Kasper J, Hibberd PL, Thea DM, Herlihy JM. Developing a career in global health: Considerations for physicians-in-training and academic mentors. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2012 September; 4(3):301-6.
  22. Nelson BD, Ahn R, Fehling M, Eckardt MJ, Conn KL, El-Bashir A, Tiernan M, Purcell G, Burke TF. Evaluation of a novel training package among frontline maternal, newborn, and child health workers in South Sudan. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2012 Nov;119(2):130-5.
  23. Olson KR, Caldwell A, Sihombing M, Guarino AJ, Nelson BD. Community-based newborn resuscitation among frontline providers in a developing country. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 31 October 2012;119:244-47.
  24. Nelson BD, Stoklosa H, Ahn R, Eckardt MJ, Walton EK, Burke TF. Uterine balloon tamponade for postpartum hemorrhage control among community-based health providers in South Sudan. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2013 July;122(1):27-32.
  25. Lee PT, Johnson AK, Rajashekara S, Ellison-Barnes A, Heintz JI, Jastrzembski BG, Mallampatti DP, Wagner AE, Nelson BD. Clinical Topics in Global Health: A practical introduction for pre-clinical medical students. MedEdPORTAL. 2013 July 9; 9471. Available from: www.mededportal.org/publication/9471.
  26. Fehling M, Nelson BD, Ahn R, Eckardt M, Tiernan M, Purcell G, El-Bashir A, Burke TF. Development of a community-based maternal, newborn, and child emergency training package in South Sudan. Public Health. 2013 Sep;127(9):797-805.
  27. Fehling M, Nelson BD, Venkatapuram S. Limitations of the Millennium Development Goals framework: A literature review. Global Public Health. 25 November 2013;8(10):1109-22.
  28. Anderson RE, Chavez J, de Redon E, Hines R, Ahn R, Nelson BD, Burke TF. Defining the anesthesia gap in reproductive health surgeries in resource-limited settings. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2014 Aug 13. pii: S0020-7292(14)00420-2.
  29. Zucker H, Ahn R, Sinclair SJ, Blais M, Nelson BD, Burke TF. Development of a scale to measure individuals’ ratings of peace. Conflict and Health. September 2014;8:17-23.
  30. Makene CL, Plotkin M, Currie S, Bishanga D, Ugwi P, Louis H, Winani K, Nelson BD. Improvements in newborn care and newborn resuscitation following a quality improvement program at scale: results from an observational study in Tanzania. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2014 Nov;14:381.
  31. Collins LB, Ellis M, Farquhar A, Farquhar I, Jenkins C, Laverty O, Murray V, Pritchard EWJ, Nelson BD. Child-headed households in Rakai District, Uganda: A mixed-methods study. Paediatrics and International Child Health. 2014.
  32. Nelson BD, Ahn R, Markovchick V, Hines RA, Lauretti AR, Lauretti JR, Dahl-Regis M, Burke TF. Emergency care and referral among isolated island populations in the Bahamas. Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2014.
  33. Burke TF, Hines R, Ahn R, Walters M, Young D, Anderson RE, Tom SM, Clark R, Obita W, Nelson BD. Emergency and urgent care capacity in a resource-limited setting: An assessment of health facilities in western Kenya. BMJ Open. 2014.
  34. Fehling M, Nelson BD, Ahn R, Eckardt M, Tiernan M, Purcell G, Burke TF. Maternal, Newborn, and Child Survival training package for frontline health workers in resource-limited settings. MedEdPORTAL. 2014.
  35. Ahamadani FAB, Louis H, Ugwi P, Hines R, Pomerleau M, Ahn R, Burke TF, Nelson BD. Perinatal healthcare in a conflict-affected setting: Evaluation of healthcare services and newborn outcomes at a regional medical center in Iraq. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal: A journal of the World Health Organization. 2014.

Kate Powis, MD, MPH, MBA

  1. Shapiro R, Hughes M, Ogwu A, Kitch D, Lockman, S, Moffat C, Makhema J, Moyo S, Thior I, McIntosh K, van Widenfelt E, Leidner J, Powis K, Asmelash A, Tumbare E, Zwerski S, Sharma U, Handelsman E, Mburu K, Jayeoba O, Moko E, Souda S, Lubega E, Akhtar M, Wester C, Snowden W, Martinez-Tristani M, Mazhani L, Essex, M. Antiretroviral Regimens in Pregnancy and Breast-Feeding in Botswana. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:2282-2294.
  2. Dryden-Peterson S, Shapiro RL, Hughes MD, Powis K, Ogwu A, Moffat C, Moyo S, Makhema J, Essex M, Lockman S. Increased Risk of Severe Anemia Following Exposure to Maternal HAART, Botswana.  JAIDS; 2011;56(5):428-436.
  3. Parekh N, Ribaudo H, Souda S, Chen J, Mmalane M, Powis K, Essex M, Makhema J, Shapiro RL. Risk factors for very preterm delivery and delivery of very-small-for-gestational-age infants among HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants in Botswana. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics  2011;115(1):20-5
  4. Powis KM, Smeaton L, Ogwu A, Lockman S, Dryden-Peterson S, van Widenfelt E,  Leidner J, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro RL. Effects of in utero antiretroviral exposure on longitudinal growth of HIV-exposed uninfected infants in Botswana.  JAIDS 2011;56(2):131-138.
  5. Powis KM, Kitch D, Ogwu A, Hughes MD, Lockman S, Leidner J, van Widenfelt E, Moffat C, Moyo S, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro RL. Increased risk of preterm delivery among HIV-infected women randomized to protease versus nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based HAART during pregnancy. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2011;204(4):506-514.
  6. Shapiro RL, Souda S, Parekh N, Binda K, Kayembe M, Lockman S, Svab P, Babitseng O, Powis K, Jimbo W, Creek T, Makehma J, Essex M, Roberts DJ. High Prevalence of Hypertension and Placental Insufficiency, but No In Utero HIV Transmission, among Women on HAART with Stillbirths in Botswana.  PLoS ONE 2012;7(2)e31580.
  7. Chen J, Ribaudo HJ, Souda S, Parekh N, Ogwu A, Lockman S, Powis K, Dryden-Peterson S, Creek T, Jimbo W, Madidimalo T, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro RL. Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Adverse Outcomes among HIV-infected Women in Botswana. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2012;206(11):1695-1705.
  8. Plank R, Kubiak DW, Abdullahi RB, Ndubuka N, Nkgau MM, Dapaah-Siakwan F, Powis KM, Lockman S. Loss of anatomical landmarks with eutectic mixture of local anesthetic cream for neonatal circumcision. Journal of Pediatric Urology 2012 Feb;9(1):e86-90.
  9. Plank R, Ndubuka N, Wirth KE, Mwambona JT, Kebaabetswe P, Basil B, Lesetedi C, Magetse J,  Nkgau MM, Makhema J, Mmalane M, Creek T, Powis KM, Shapiro R,  Lockman S. A randomized trial of Mogen clamp versus Plastibell for neonatal male circumcision in Botswana. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2013;62(5):e131-7.
  10. Powis KM, McElrath TF, Hughes MD, Ogwu A, Souda S, Datwyler SA, von Widenfelt E, Moyo S, Nadas M, Makhema J, Machakaire E, Lockman Shahin, Essex M, Shapiro RL. High Viral Load and Elevated Angiogenic Markers Associated with Increased Risk of Preeclampsia among Women Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Pregnancy in the Mma Bana Study, Botswana. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2013;62:517-524.
  11. Souda S, Gaseitsiwe S, Georgette N, Powis K, Moremedi D, Iketleng T, Leidner J, Moffat C, Ogwu A, Lockman S, Moyo S, Mmalane M, Musonda R, Makehma J, Essex M, Shapiro R. No Clinically Significant Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV-1 subtype C Infected Women After Discontinuation of NRTI-based or PI-Based HAART for PMTCT. JAIDS 2013;63:572-577.
  12. Shapiro RL, Kitch D, Ogwu A, Hughes MD, Lockman S, Powis K, Souda S, Moffat C, Moyo S, McIntosh K, HIV transmission and 24-month survival in a randomized trial of HAART to prevent MTCT during pregnancy and breastfeeding in Botswana. AIDS 2013;27(12):1911-1920.
  13. Dryden-Peterson S, Jayeoba O, Hughes MD, Jibril H, McIntosh K, Modise TA, Asmelash A, Powis KM, Essex M, Shapiro RL, Lockman S. Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis and Risk of Severe Anemia or Severe Neutropenia in HAART-Exposed, HIV-Uninfected Infants. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74171
  14. Zash RM, Ajose-Popoola O, Stordal K,  Souda S, Ogwu A, Dryden-Peterson S, Powis K, Lockman S, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro RL. Risk factors for mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-exposed and unexposed infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit in Botswana. Journal of Peadiatrics and Child Health 2013 DOI:10.1111/jpc.12454.
  15. Plank RM, Wirth KE, Ndubuka NO, Abdullahi R, Nkgau M, Lesetedi C, Powis KM, Mmalane M, Makhema J, Shapiro R, Lockman S. Single- Arm Evaluation of the AccuCirc Device for Early Infant Male Circumcision in Botswana. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2014;66:1-6.
  16. Powis KM, Lockman S, Smeaton L, Hughes MD, Fawzi W, Ogwu A, Moyo S, van Widenfelt E, von Oettingen J, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro RL. Vitamin D insufficiency in HIV-infected pregnant women on antiretroviral therapy is not associated with morbidity, mortality or growth impairment in their uninfected infants in Botswana. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2014;33(11):1141-7.
  17. Powis KM, Shapiro RL. Protease Inhibitors and Adverse Birth Outcomes: Is Progesterone the Missing Piece to the Puzzle? Journal of Infectious Diseases 2014;doi:10.1093/infdis/jiu397.

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