Currently Browsing:Obstetrics & Gynecology

  • Midlife Women's Health Center

    The Midlife Women’s Health Center brings together experts from more than 15 specialties to improve, promote and advance healthcare for women at menopause and beyond through research, collaboration and education.

    See upcoming events Support our work

    Contact us: 617-726-6776

  • Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery Center

    The Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery (MIGS) Center at Massachusetts General Hospital delivers innovative, multidisciplinary care for a full range of gynecologic conditions including endometriosis, fibroids, abnormal uterine bleeding, ovarian cysts/masses, pelvic pain, urinary incontinence and gynecologic cancers.

    Watch a video about the MIGS Center

    Call to request an appointment or refer a patient 855-MIGS-MGH

  • Urogynecology and Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery Program

    The Massachusetts General Hospital Urogynecology and Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery Program provides comprehensive evaluation and treatment (both non-surgical and surgical) for female pelvic floor problems, ie, pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence, helping women return to a normal lifestyle.

    Call to schedule an appointment: 617-724-6850

  • Benign Gynecology Program

    The Benign Gynecology Program at the Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology delivers compassionate, expert care for the full range of gynecologic issues.

    Request an appointment online

    Call to schedule an appointment or refer a patient 617-724-6850

Currently Browsing:Urology

  • Female Urology Program

    The Massachusetts General Hospital Female Urology Program provides advanced and comprehensive care for urinary tract disorders including incontinence, voiding dysfunctions and pelvic prolapse.

    To schedule an appointment: 617-726-8475

About This Condition


What is a cystocele?

When the wall between the bladder and the vagina weakens, the bladder may drop or sag into the vagina. This disorder in women is called a cystocele.

Cystoceles are grouped into grades:


Grade 1

Mild. The bladder droops only a short way into the vagina.

Grade 2

More severe. The bladder has sunk into the vagina far enough to reach the opening of the vagina.

Grade 3

Most advanced. The bladder bulges out through the opening of the vagina.

What causes a cystocele?

A cystocele may be caused by the following:

  • Advancing age  
  • Overweight
  • Child birth
  • Heavy lifting
  • Straining muscles during childbirth
  • Chronic coughing
  • Constipation
  • Repeated straining during bowel movements
  • Previous pelvic surgery
  • Weak muscles around the vagina caused by lack of estrogen after menopause

What are the symptoms of a cystocele?

Symptoms of cystocele include:

  • Feeling of pelvic heaviness or fullness
  • Bulge in the vagina that you can feel
  • Aching or a feeling of pressure in the lower belly or pelvis
  • Lower back pain
  • Frequent urinary tract infections
  • Need to urinate often or urgently
  • Leakage of urine
  • Incomplete emptying of the bladder
  • Constipation
  • Needing to push organs back up into the vagina to empty the bladder or have a bowel movement
  • Pain during sex
  • Problems putting in tampons or vaginal applicators
  • Pelvic pressure that gets worse with standing, lifting, or coughing or as the day goes on

How is a cystocele diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will review your medical history and do a physical and pelvic exam. Other tests may include:

  • Cystourethrogram (also called a voiding cystogram). This is an X-ray of the bladder taken while the woman is urinating and with the bladder and urethra filled with contrast dye. It shows the shape of the bladder and any blockages.
  • MRI can be used to determine the extent of bladder prolapse

Other tests may be needed to find out if there are any problems in the other areas of the urinary system.

How is a cystocele treated?

Treatment depends on the grade of the cystocele and may include:

  • Activity changes. Avoiding certain activities, such as heavy lifting or straining during bowel movements, that could cause the cystocele to worsen.
  • Kegel exercises. Regular, daily exercises of the pelvic muscles to make them stronger.
  • Pessary. This is a device placed in the vagina to hold the bladder in place.
  • Surgery. May be used to move the bladder back into a more normal position
  • Hormone replacement therapy. This may help to strengthen the muscles around the vagina and bladder. If you are thinking about hormone replacement therapy, talk to your healthcare provider about the risks and benefits first.

Key points about cystocele

  • A cystocele is when the wall between the bladder and the vagina weakens. This can cause the bladder to drop or sag into the vagina.
  • It may be caused by things that increase pressure on the pelvic muscles.
  • Treatment depends on the severity of the cystocele. It may include avoiding certain activities, surgery, or other methods.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.