Conditions & Treatments

Diabetic Foot Problems

The nerves of the feet are often affected by neuropathy or blood vessel diseases. When a diabetes patient loses sensation in the feet, sores or injuries may go unnoticed until ulcers develop.

Diabetic Foot Problems

What causes diabetic foot problems?

Neuropathy and blood vessel disease both increase the risk of foot ulcers. The nerves of the feet are the longest in the body and often are affected by nerve injury or neuropathy. When a patient with diabetes loses sensation in the feet, sores or injuries may go unnoticed until serious ulcers develop.

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), more than half of nontraumatic lower-limb amputations in the United States occur among people with diabetes.

Prevention of diabetic foot problems

To help keep foot problems from developing, the NIDDK recommends that people with diabetes take care of the disease and its symptoms, and follow these suggestions for proper foot care:

Check your feet and toes daily for any cuts, sores, bruises, bumps, or infections--use a mirror if necessary.

Examine your shoes before putting them on to make sure they have no tears, sharp edges, or objects in them that might injure your feet.

Wash your feet daily using warm (not hot) water and a mild soap. If you have neuropathy, you should test the water temperature with your wrist before putting your feet in the water. Doctors do not advise soaking your feet for long periods. Dry your feet carefully with a soft towel, especially between the toes.

Wear shoes that fit your feet well and allow your toes to move. Break in new shoes gradually, wearing them for only an hour at a time at first. After years of neuropathy, as reflexes are lost, the feet are likely to become wider and flatter. If you have trouble finding shoes that fit, ask your doctor to refer you to a specialist, called a podiatrist, who can provide you with corrective shoes or inserts.

Cover your feet (except for the skin between the toes) with petroleum jelly, a lotion containing lanolin, or cold cream before putting on shoes and socks. For people with diabetes, the feet tend to sweat less than normal. Using a moisturizer helps prevent dry, cracked skin.

Use an emery board or pumice stone to file away dead skin, but do not remove calluses. Do not try to cut off any growths yourself, and avoid using harsh chemicals such as wart remover on your feet.

Cut your toenails straight across, but be careful not to leave any sharp corners that could cut the next toe.

Avoid sitting with your legs crossed. Crossing your legs can reduce the flow of blood to the feet.

Ask your doctor to check your feet at every visit, and call your doctor if you notice that a sore is not healing well.

Wear socks if your feet become cold at night. Do not use heating pads or hot water bottles.

Wear thick, soft socks and avoid wearing slippery stockings, mended stockings, or stockings with seams.

Never go barefoot, especially on the beach, hot sand, or rocks.

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that if you have a cut or break in your skin, or develop an ingrown toenail, call or see your health care provider. In addition, the ADA states that if your foot (or feet) change color, shape, or just "feel funny" (for example pain or loss of sensation), you should contact your health care provider.  

Treatment Programs


Massachusetts General Hospital understands that a variety of factors influence patients' health care decisions. That's just one reason why we're dedicated to ensuring patients understand their diagnosis and treatment options. Because a single option might not serve all patients, we offer a wide range of coordinated treatments and related services across the hospital. Patients should consult with their primary care doctor or other qualified health care provider for medical advice and diagnosis information.

Select a treatment program for more information:



Imaging

  • Adult Medicine Imaging
    The Adult Medicine Imaging Program at Massachusetts General Hospital Imaging offers a wide range of diagnostic exams and minimally invasive, image-guided treatments, all provided using leading-edge equipment and interpreted by specialty-trained radiologists.
MassGeneral Hospital for Children

  • Pediatric Endocrine Program and Diabetes Center
    The Pediatric Endocrinology Program and Diabetes Center at MassGeneral Hospital for Children is an international referral center for the management of pediatric diabetes and endocrine disorders in children and adolescents.
Department of Orthopaedics

  • Podiatry Service
    Our Podiatrists provide state-of-the-art outpatient and surgical care treating conditions like hammertoes, Morton’s neuroma, Plantar Fasciitis, geriatric foot care and bunions.
Diabetes Unit

  • Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support Program
    The Diabetes Self Management Education and Support (DSME/S) Program is an outpatient program designed for adults, children, and seniors with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes.
  • Diabetes Clinical Center
    The Mass General Diabetes Clinical Center is one of the oldest outpatient centers in the country dedicated to the comprehensive treatment of persons with diabetes, pre-diabetes, and associated disorders.

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