Conditions & Treatments


Hyperparathyroidism is caused by overactive parathyroid glands. Overactive parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormones, which in turn stimulate increased levels of calcium in the blood stream.


What is hyperparathyroidism?

The parathyroid glands are tiny glands. Each one is about the size of a grain of rice. They are located in the neck, next to the thyroid gland but completely separate from it. They are responsible for keeping the amount of calcium in your blood in a normal range. Hyperparathyroidism is caused by one or more overactive parathyroid glands. Overactive parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH), which in turn stimulates increased levels of calcium in the bloodstream.

Illustration of the thyroid gland and its location showing the voicebox, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, artery, vein, windpipe and laryngeal.
Thyroid Gland - Click to Enlarge

This excess calcium happens because the PTH causes calcium to be released from your bones. This loss of calcium from the bones can lead to osteoporosis, osteopenia, and bone fracture. As the blood containing this high calcium goes through the kidneys, the calcium may be filtered into the urine and lead to kidney stones.

Hyperparathyroidism is usually the result of a benign enlargement of a parathyroid gland that produces too much PTH. Most people with hyperparathyroidism have one abnormal gland. A small number of people may have two abnormal glands at the same time, and some people have all abnormal glands. Having four glands involved is rare, and it is usually a hereditary problem.

What are symptoms of hyperparathyroidism?

The following are the most common symptoms of hyperparathyroidism. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Joint aches and pains

  • Depression

  • Abdominal pain

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

  • Peptic ulcer disease

  • Pancreatitis

  • Fatigue

  • Excessive urination

  • Confusion

  • Muscle weakness

  • Osteoporosis

  • Kidney stones

The symptoms of hyperparathyroidism may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.

How is hyperparathyroidism diagnosed?

Hyperparathyroidism is usually found by noticing an elevated calcium level on routine blood testing. Blood tests include measuring levels of calcium and PTH. Urine tests measure the urine for calcium across 24 hours.


How is hyperparathyroidism treated?


The only treatment for hyperparathyroidism is removal of the abnormal parathyroid gland. Before surgery, an imaging test may be used to find out which parathyroid is abnormal. Ultrasound of the neck can be very effective in finding the abnormal parathyroid. Sestamibi scanning is another test that may be used. Knowing which parathyroid gland is abnormal will help keep the operation as quick and focused as possible.


Treatment Programs

Massachusetts General Hospital understands that a variety of factors influence patients' health care decisions. That's just one reason why we're dedicated to ensuring patients understand their diagnosis and treatment options. Because a single option might not serve all patients, we offer a wide range of coordinated treatments and related services across the hospital. Patients should consult with their primary care doctor or other qualified health care provider for medical advice and diagnosis information.

Select a treatment program for more information:

Cancer Center

  • Parathyroid Tumors
    Parathyroid tumors are treated in the Center for Endocrine Tumors, one of the oldest and largest programs of its kind in the country.

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    The Pediatric Imaging Program at Massachusetts General Hospital Imaging specializes in ensuring the safety and comfort of child patients while providing the latest technology and the expertise of specialized pediatric radiologists.
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    The Adult Medicine Imaging Program at Massachusetts General Hospital Imaging offers a wide range of diagnostic exams and minimally invasive, image-guided treatments, all provided using leading-edge equipment and interpreted by specialty-trained radiologists.
MassGeneral Hospital for Children

  • Pediatric Endocrine Program and Diabetes Center
    The Pediatric Endocrinology Program and Diabetes Center at MassGeneral Hospital for Children is an international referral center for the management of pediatric diabetes and endocrine disorders in children and adolescents.
Endocrine Unit

  • Endocrine and Osteoporosis Associates
    Endocrine and Osteoporosis Associates at Massachusetts General Hospital provides comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic services for patients with endocrine disorders, osteoporosis and related metabolic bone diseases.

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