Conditions & Treatments

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Caused by a certain type of bacteria, pelvic inflammatory disease results in pelvic pain and the possibility of an ectopic pregnancy (a fertilized egg becoming implanted outside the uterus).

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

What is pelvic inflammatory disease?

Illustration of the anatomy of the female pelvic area
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Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is caused by bacteria, often the same type of bacteria that is responsible for several sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. In some cases, PID develops from bacteria that has traveled through the vagina and the cervix by way of an intrauterine device (IUD).

PID can affect the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or the ovaries. It can lead to pelvic adhesions and scar tissue that develops between internal organs, causing ongoing pelvic pain and the possibility of an ectopic pregnancy (the fertilized egg becomes implanted outside the uterus). Left untreated, infertility can develop. In fact, one in 10 women with PID becomes infertile. If left untreated, PID can also lead to chronic infection. In addition, if PID is not diagnosed early enough, peritonitis and inflammation of the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavity may develop.

Who is at risk for pelvic inflammatory disease?

Although women of any age can develop PID, sexually active women under age 25, and those of childbearing age are at the greatest risk of acquiring the disease through sexually transmitted bacteria. Women who use intrauterine devices (IUDs) are also at an increased risk.

What are the symptoms of PID?

The following are the most common symptoms of PID. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms of PID include:

  • Diffuse pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen

  • Pelvic pain

  • Increased foul-smelling vaginal discharge

  • Fever and chills

  • Vomiting and nausea

  • Pain during urination

  • Abdominal pain (upper right area)

  • Pain during sexual intercourse

Symptoms may be mild enough that the condition may go undiagnosed.

The symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your health care provider for a diagnosis.

How is PID diagnosed?

In addition to a complete medical history and physical and pelvic examination, diagnostic procedures for PID may include the following:

  • Microscopic examination of samples from the vagina and cervix

  • Blood tests

  • Pap test. Test that involves microscopic examination of cells collected from the cervix, used to detect changes that may be cancer or may lead to cancer, and to show noncancerous conditions, such as infection or inflammation.

  • Ultrasound. A diagnostic imaging technique which uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of the internal organs.

  • Laparoscopy. A minor surgical procedure in which a laparoscope, a thin tube with a lens and a light, is inserted into an incision in the abdominal wall. Using the laparoscope to see into the pelvic area, the physician can determine the locations, extent, and size of the endometrial growths.

  • Culdocentesis. A procedure in which a needle is inserted into the pelvic cavity through the vaginal wall to obtain a sample of pus.

Treatment for PID

Specific treatment for cervicitis will be determined by your health care provider based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the disease

  • Type and severity of the symptoms

  • Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the disease

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment for PID usually includes oral antibiotics, particularly if there is evidence of gonorrhea or chlamydia. In cases of severe infection, hospitalization may be required to administer intravenous antibiotics. Occasionally, surgery is necessary.

Treatment Programs


Massachusetts General Hospital understands that a variety of factors influence patients' health care decisions. That's just one reason why we're dedicated to ensuring patients understand their diagnosis and treatment options. Because a single option might not serve all patients, we offer a wide range of coordinated treatments and related services across the hospital. Patients should consult with their primary care doctor or other qualified health care provider for medical advice and diagnosis information.

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    The Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery (MIGS) Center at Massachusetts General Hospital delivers innovative, multidisciplinary care for a full range of gynecologic conditions including endometriosis, fibroids, abnormal uterine bleeding, ovarian cysts/masses, pelvic pain, urinary incontinence and gynecologic cancers.
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