The Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine at MassGeneral Hospital for Children is a well-established clinical, training and research program. The group provides multidisciplinary comprehensive consultation, diagnostic and management services for a wide array of pulmonary conditions.
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The Massachusetts General Hospital Interstitial Lung Disease Program provides the latest diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with the roughly 160 disorders categorized as interstitial lung diseases, also known as pulmonary fibrosis.
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The Lung Transplant Program at the Massachusetts General Hospital Transplant Center brings together state-of-the-art technology and leading-edge medical and surgical interventions to provide patients with individualized care before and after their lung transplants.Download our patient guide to transplantation (PDF) Ver información e indicaciones para el paciente en español (PDF)
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The Transplant Psychiatry Program in the Massachusetts General Hospital Transplant Center is an important part of the comprehensive and life-long care provided to transplant patients and donors.Download our patient guide to transplantation (PDF) Ver información e indicaciones para el paciente en español (PDF)
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The Transplant Infectious Disease Program, part of the Massachusetts General Hospital Transplant Center, is a part of the life-long care provided to organ, bone marrow and stem cell transplant recipients and others with increased risk for infections.Download our patient guide to transplantation (PDF) Ver información e indicaciones para el paciente en español (PDF)
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What is pulmonary sarcoidosis?
Sarcoidosis is a rare disease caused by inflammation. It usually occurs in the lungs and lymph nodes, but it can occur in almost any organ.
Sarcoidosis in the lungs is called pulmonary sarcoidosis. It causes small lumps of inflammatory cells in the lungs. These lumps are called granulomas and can affect how the lungs work. The granulomas generally heal and disappear on their own. But, if they don’t heal, the lung tissue can remain inflamed and become scarred and stiff. This is called pulmonary fibrosis. It distorts the structure of the lungs and can interfere with breathing. Bronchiectasis can also occur. Pockets can form in the air tubes of the lung and become infected. But, these problems are not common.
What causes pulmonary sarcoidosis?
The cause of pulmonary sarcoidosis is unknown.
Some research suggests that bacteria, viruses, or chemicals might trigger the disease. Because a person is more likely to develop sarcoidosis if someone his or her close family has it suggests that genetics may play a role. This is an active area of research.
What are the symptoms of pulmonary sarcoidosis?
Most people with sarcoidosis do not have symptoms and probably don't know they have the disease. It can affect many organs, causing a variety of symptoms. Pulmonary sarcoidosis can reduce the amount of air the lungs can hold and cause lung stiffness.
The following are the most common symptoms of pulmonary sarcoidosis. However, each person may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
- Shortness of breath, which often gets worse with activity
- Dry cough that will not go away
- Chest pain
Sarcoidosis can also cause symptoms not directly related to the lungs, such as:
- Skin rashes, lumps, and color changes on face, arms, or shins
- Inflammation of the eyes and pain, burning, blurred vision, and light sensitivity
- Weight loss
- Extreme tiredness (fatigue)
- Night sweats
- Pain in the joints and bones
- Swollen lymph nodes
The symptoms of pulmonary sarcoidosis may look like other conditions or medical problems. Consult a health care provider for a diagnosis.
How is pulmonary sarcoidosis diagnosed?
In addition to a complete medical history and physical exam, medical tests used may include:
- Chest X-ray. A type of imaging test used to assess the lungs, as well as the heart. Chest X-rays may show important information about the size, shape, and location of the lungs, bronchi (large breathing tubes), and mediastinum (area in the middle of the chest separating the lungs).
- Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan). An imaging test that uses of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the lungs. CT scans are more detailed than regular X-rays. They can be used to diagnose lung diseases, monitor disease progression, and evaluate response to treatment.
- Pulmonary function tests (PFTs). These are tests that help to measure the lungs' ability to move air in and out of the lungs. The tests are usually done with special machines into which the person must breathe.
- Blood tests. These can be used to check the amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood, evaluate liver and kidney function, and look for infection and other diseases.
- Bronchoscopy. A long, thin, flexible tube with a light at the end (called a bronchoscope) is put down the throat and into the lungs. This allows the doctor to view the bronchi (the main airways of the lungs). It is done to help evaluate and diagnose lung problems. Lung tissue samples (biopsies) and lung washings (lavage) that remove cells from the lungs can be done through the bronchoscope.
- Bronchoalveolar lavage. This is a procedure in which a sterile saline solution is put into the lungs through a bronchoscope and then suctioned out. The saline carries out cells from the lower respiratory tract, which can be checked under a microscope to help identify inflammation and infection and exclude (rule out) certain causes.
- Lung biopsy. A test in which a small piece of tissue, cells, or fluid from the lungs is taken out and checked under a microscope.
Sarcoidosis is usually diagnosed when other lung disorders are ruled out.
How is pulmonary sarcoidosis treated?
Treatment is generally done to control symptoms and improve the function of organs affected by the disease.
In many cases, no treatment is needed for pulmonary sarcoidosis. Different treatments work better for different people. Sometimes more than one treatment is used. Most medications used to treat sarcoidosis suppress the immune system.
Steroid treatment, such as prednisone, may help reduce inflammation. They can be taken by mouth or inhaled. Other medicines, such as methotrexate, may be used in severe cases or if steroids don’t work.
You may also join a rehab program that includes education, exercise, and support.
In severe cases, which are not common, oxygen therapy and even lung transplant may be needed.
Key points about pulmonary sarcoidosis
- Sarcoidosis is a rare disease caused by inflammation. Most cases of sarcoidosis are found in the lungs and lymph nodes, but it can occur in almost any organ.
- Sarcoidosis in the lungs is called pulmonary sarcoidosis. It causes small lumps of inflammatory cells, called granulomas, in the lungs. They can affect how the lungs work.
- The cause of pulmonary sarcoidosis is unknown.
- The most common symptoms of pulmonary sarcoidosis are shortness of breath, which often gets worse with activity; dry cough that will not go away; chest pain; and wheezing.
- Treatment is generally done to control symptoms or to improve the function of organs affected by the disease. Steroids are often used.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your health care provider:
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
- At the visit, write down the names of new medicines, treatments, or tests, and any new instructions your provider gives you.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.