Conditions & Treatments

Thyroid Disorders in Women

The thyroid gland, which plays an important role in the body's metabolism, secretes several hormones: thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin.

Thyroid Disorders in Women

Functions of the thyroid gland

The thyroid gland regulates the body's metabolism and growth, and secretes several hormones: thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin. Thyroid problems can affect female patients of any age.

How a thyroid disorder affects a woman's body

The functions of the thyroid gland have much to do with a woman's reproductive system, particularly if the thyroid is overactive or underactive. Effects of this imbalance in hormone levels may have the following effects on a woman's body:

Puberty and menstruation

Thyroid disorders can cause abnormally early or late onset of puberty and menstruation. In addition, abnormally high or low levels of thyroid hormone can cause very light or very heavy menstrual periods, very irregular menstrual periods, or absent menstrual periods (a condition called amenorrhea).

Reproduction

An overactive or underactive thyroid may also affect ovulation (the release of an egg for fertilization). Thyroid disorders may prevent ovulation from occurring at all. In addition, the ovaries are at an increased risk for cyst development if the woman has an underactive thyroid (hypothyroid). Severe hypothyroidism can actually cause milk production in the breast, while preventing ovulation.

Pregnancy and postpartum

Thyroid disorders during pregnancy can harm the fetus and may lead to thyroid problems in the mother after birth, such as postpartum thyroiditis.

Menopause

Thyroid disorders may cause the early onset of menopause (before age 40 or in the early 40s). In addition, some symptoms of hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), such as lack of menstruation, hot flashes, insomnia, and mood swings may be mistaken for early menopause. Treating hyperthyroidism sometimes can alleviate symptoms of, or the actual onset of, early menopause.

Treatment Programs


Massachusetts General Hospital understands that a variety of factors influence patients' health care decisions. That's just one reason why we're dedicated to ensuring patients understand their diagnosis and treatment options. Because a single option might not serve all patients, we offer a wide range of coordinated treatments and related services across the hospital. Patients should consult with their primary care doctor or other qualified health care provider for medical advice and diagnosis information.

Select a treatment program for more information:



Imaging

  • Adult Medicine Imaging
    The Adult Medicine Imaging Program at Massachusetts General Hospital Imaging offers a wide range of diagnostic exams and minimally invasive, image-guided treatments, all provided using leading-edge equipment and interpreted by specialty-trained radiologists.
MassGeneral Hospital for Children

  • Pediatric Endocrine Program and Diabetes Center
    The Pediatric Endocrinology Program and Diabetes Center at MassGeneral Hospital for Children is an international referral center for the management of pediatric diabetes and endocrine disorders in children and adolescents.
Obstetrics and Gynecology

  • Midlife Women's Health Center
    The Massachusetts General Hospital Midlife Women’s Health Center brings together experts from more than 15 specialties to improve, promote and advance health care for women at menopause and beyond through research, collaboration and education.
Benson Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine

  • Consultation
    Come in for a consultation, leave with a comprehensive mind body treatment plan that addresses your stress-related medical condition.
  • Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP)
    Designed to give patients a variety of mind body skills and interventions to decrease medical symptoms and build resilience.
Endocrine Unit

  • Thyroid Associates
    Thyroid Associates at Massachusetts General Hospital provides expert, comprehensive and efficient care for patients with thyroid disorders such as hyperthyroidism, thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer.

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