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What is an enchondroma?
An enchondroma is a type of noncancerous bone tumor that begins in cartilage. Cartilage is the specialized, gristly connective tissue from which most bones develop. Cartilage plays an important role in the growth process. There are many different types of cartilage in the body. An enchondroma most often affects the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones. It often affects the tiny long bones of the hands and feet. It may also affect other bones such as the femur (thighbone), humerus (upper arm bone), or tibia (one of the two lower leg bones).
An enchondroma may occur as one or several tumors. The conditions that involve multiple tumors include the following:
- Ollier's disease (enchondromatosis). When multiple sites in the body develop the tumors.
- Maffucci's syndrome. A combination of multiple tumors and angiomas (benign tumors made up of blood vessels).
Enchondromas are the most common type of hand tumor. While it may affect a person at any age, it is most common between the ages of 10 and 20 years. It affects men and women equally.
What causes an enchondroma?
While the exact cause of enchondroma is not known, it is thought to occur either as an overgrowth of the cartilage that lines the ends of the bones, or as a persistent growth of original, embryonic cartilage.
What are the symptoms of an enchondroma?
With an enchondroma, you may have no symptoms at all. The following are the most common symptoms of an enchondroma. However, each person may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
- Hand pain that may occur if the tumor is very large, or if the affected bone has weakened causing a hand fracture
- Enlargement of the affected finger
- Slow bone growth in the affected area
The symptoms of enchondroma may look like other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.
How is an enchondroma diagnosed?
Because you may have few symptoms, diagnosis is sometimes made during a routine physical exam, or if the tumor leads to a fracture in the hand.
In addition to a complete medical history and physical exam, tests may include:
- X-rays. A test that uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs on film.
- Radionuclide bone scans. A nuclear imaging method to evaluate any degenerative and/or arthritic changes in the joints; to detect bone diseases and tumors; to determine the cause of bone pain or inflammation. This test helps to rule out any infection or fractures.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body. This test is done to rule out any associated abnormalities of the spinal cord and nerves.
- Computed tomography scan (also called a CT or CAT scan). An imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays.
How is an enchondroma treated?
Specific treatment for enchondroma will be determined by your doctor based on:
- Your age, overall health, and medical history
- Extent of the disease
- Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- Expectations for the course of the disease
- Your opinion or preference
Treatment may include:
- Surgery in some cases, when bone weakening is present or fractures occur
- Bone grafting. A surgical procedure in which healthy bone is transplanted from another part of the body into the affected area.
If there is no sign of bone weakening or growth of the tumor, your doctor may simply keep close watch on the condition. However, follow-up with repeat X-rays may be needed. Some types of enchondromas can develop into cancerous bone tumors later. Careful follow-up with a doctor is often recommended.
Key points about enchondromas
An enchondroma is a type of benign (noncancerous) bone tumor that originates from cartilage. An enchondroma most often affects the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones.
- Enchondromas are the most common type of hand tumor.
- The exact cause of enchondroma is not known.
- It is most common between the ages of 10 and 20 years.
- It affects women and men equally.
- You may have no symptoms at all.
- Diagnosis is sometimes made during a routine physical exam, or if the presence of the tumor leads to a fracture in the hand.
- Treatment may include surgery, bone grafting or watchful waiting.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your health care provider:
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
- At the visit, write down the names of new medicines, treatments, or tests, and any new instructions your provider gives you.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.