Conditions & Treatments


Hyperthyroidism means overactivity of the thyroid gland, resulting in too much thyroid hormone in the bloodstream.


What is hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism means overactivity of the thyroid gland, resulting in too much thyroid hormone in the bloodstream. The oversecretion of thyroid hormones leads to overactivity of the body's metabolism.

Illustration of the thyroid gland and its location
Thyroid Gland - Click to Enlarge

What are the symptoms of hyperthyroidism?

The following are the most common symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Nervousness

  • Irritability

  • Increased perspiration

  • Thinning of the skin

  • Fine, brittle hair

  • Weak muscles, especially in the upper arms and thighs

  • Shaky hands

  • Fast heartbeat

  • High blood pressure

  • Increased bowel movements

  • Weight loss

  • Sleeping difficulty

  • Prominent eyes

  • Sensitivity to bright light

  • Confusion

  • Irregular menstrual cycle

  • Fatigue

  • Goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland) 

The symptoms of hyperthyroidism may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.

Types of hyperthyroidism

There are several forms of hyperthyroidism, including:

  • Graves' disease (diffuse toxic goiter). Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Researchers believe Graves' disease is caused by an antibody which stimulates the thyroid too much. This overstimulation causes the excess production of thyroid hormone. Graves' disease is categorized as an autoimmune disorder (a dysfunction of the body's immune system). The disease is most common in young to middle-aged women and tends to run in families.

    Symptoms of Graves' disease are identical to hyperthyroidism, with the addition of three other symptoms:

    • Goiter (enlarged thyroid which may cause a bulge in the neck)

    • Bulging eyes (exophthalmos)

    • Thickened skin over the shin area

  • Toxic nodular goiter (also called multinodular goiter). Hyperthyroidism caused by toxic nodular goiter is a condition in which one or more nodules of the thyroid becomes overactive. Symptoms of toxic nodular goiter do not include bulging eyes or skin problems, as in Graves' disease. The cause of toxic nodular goiter is not known.

  • Thyroiditis. Thyroiditis causes temporary hyperthyroidism, usually followed with hypothyroidism, an underactive thyroid, as in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    In addition, if a person takes too many thyroid hormone tablets, hyperthyroidism will occur. Rarely, a benign pituitary gland tumor may overproduce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which causes hyperthyroidism. 

How is hyperthyroidism diagnosed?

In addition to a complete medical history and medical examination, diagnostic procedures for hyperthyroidism may include:

  • Measurement of thyroid hormones and TSH in the bloodstream

  • Thyroid ultrasound.  A test to evaluate the thyroid gland for evidence of any nodules. 

  • Thyroid scan. A test that uses a radioactive substance to create an image of the thyroid.

Treatment for hyperthyroidism

Treatment for hyperthyroidism is very specific for each patient. The goal of treatment is to restore the thyroid gland to normal function, producing normal levels of thyroid hormone. Specific treatment for hyperthyroidism will be determined by your doctor based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Type of hyperthyroidism

  • Extent of the disease

  • Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the disease

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment may include:

  • Use of antithyroid drugs that help lower the level of thyroid hormones in the blood.

  • Use of radioactive iodine, in the form of a pill or liquid, which damages thyroid cells so that production of thyroid hormones is slowed down.

  • Surgery to remove all or part of the thyroid.

  • Use of beta-blocking agents, which block the action of thyroid hormone on the body, mostly to decrease the rapid heart rate and palpitations. 

Treatment Programs

Massachusetts General Hospital understands that a variety of factors influence patients' health care decisions. That's just one reason why we're dedicated to ensuring patients understand their diagnosis and treatment options. Because a single option might not serve all patients, we offer a wide range of coordinated treatments and related services across the hospital. Patients should consult with their primary care doctor or other qualified health care provider for medical advice and diagnosis information.

Select a treatment program for more information:

Cancer Center

  • Thyroid Tumors
    Both benign and malignant thyroid tumors are treated in the Center for Endocrine Tumors, one of the largest programs of its kind in the country.

  • Pediatric Imaging
    The Pediatric Imaging Program at Massachusetts General Hospital Imaging specializes in ensuring the safety and comfort of child patients while providing the latest technology and the expertise of specialized pediatric radiologists.
  • Adult Medicine Imaging
    The Adult Medicine Imaging Program at Massachusetts General Hospital Imaging offers a wide range of diagnostic exams and minimally invasive, image-guided treatments, all provided using leading-edge equipment and interpreted by specialty-trained radiologists.
MassGeneral Hospital for Children

  • Pediatric Thyroid Surgery Program
    The Pediatric Thyroid Surgery Program at MassGeneral Hospital for Children (MGHfC) is a multidisciplinary program devoted to the care of infants, children and adolescents with thyroid conditions.
  • Psychology Assessment Center
    The pediatric neuropsychology specialists at Massachusetts General Hospital’s Psychology Assessment Center provide neuropsychological assessments to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological, medical, genetic and developmental disorders.
Obstetrics and Gynecology

  • Obstetrics Program
    The Obstetrics Program at Massachusetts General Hospital provides state-of-the-art, individualized care for women before, during and after childbirth.
Endocrine Unit

  • Thyroid Associates
    Thyroid Associates at Massachusetts General Hospital provides expert, comprehensive and efficient care for patients with thyroid disorders such as hyperthyroidism, thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer.
General and Gastrointestinal Surgery

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