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The Reproductive Medicine Program at the Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology provides sophisticated, compassionate care for reproductive health problems, placing the highest emphasis possible on patient safety.
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The Obstetrics Program at Massachusetts General Hospital provides state-of-the-art, individualized care for women before, during and after childbirth.
What is postpartum thyroiditis?
Postpartum thyroiditis happens when a woman’s thyroid gland becomes inflamed after having a baby. This condition affects a small percentage of pregnant women.
The thyroid is a tiny gland in the front of your neck. Its job is to make thyroid hormones. These hormones travel through your bloodstream to all parts of your body. Thyroid hormones control how your body uses energy. They affect almost every organ in your body. When your thyroid doesn’t make the right amount of hormones, you don’t feel well.
Postpartum thyroiditis may first make your thyroid overactive (hyperthyroidism). This means it makes too many thyroid hormones. This can make parts of your body work too fast. But in time the condition leads to an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). This means it doesn’t make enough thyroid hormones. As a result, parts of your body slow down.
What causes postpartum thyroiditis?
Medical experts don’t know what causes this condition. But it is a lot like the autoimmune disease Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It is hard to tell the two conditions apart.
Who is at risk for postpartum thyroiditis?
You may be more likely to get this condition if you have any of these:
- Antithyroid antibodies before pregnancy
- Type 1 diabetes
- A history of thyroid problems
- Family history of thyroid problems
What are the symptoms of postpartum thyroiditis?
When the thyroid becomes inflamed, it first sends a lot of thyroid hormone into your blood. That causes hyperthyroidism. During this time, you may not have any symptoms. Or any symptoms you do have may be mild and not last long.
After this first phase, you may fully recover. Or your thyroid may be damaged. A damaged thyroid can become underactive. This condition may also go away. Or you may have an underactive thyroid for the rest of your life. In this case you may need hormone replacement.
Each person’s symptoms may vary. Symptoms may include:
Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)
- Feeling warm
- Muscle weakness
- Rapid heartbeat
- Loss of focus
- Weight loss
Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism)
- Tiredness and lack of energy (fatigue)
- Memory loss
- Can’t handle cold weather
- Muscle cramps
- Weight gain
These symptoms may not appear until a few months after childbirth. They are often mistaken for normal signs of recovery from childbirth. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is postpartum thyroiditis diagnosed?
Tests used to diagnose postpartum thyroiditis depend on the phase of the disease. A blood test can usually tell if you have an overactive or underactive thyroid.
How is postpartum thyroiditis treated?
Your healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment for you based on:
- Your age, overall health, and past health
- How sick you are
- How well you can handle certain medicines, treatments, or therapies
- How long the condition is expected to last
- Your healthcare providers’ opinions
- Your opinion or preference
Treatment depends on the phase of the disease and your symptoms:
- Overactive thyroid. If you have major symptoms of hyperthyroidism, your provider will usually prescribe beta blockers. These medicines slow down your heart rate and ease symptoms.
- Underactive thyroid. If you have major symptoms of hypothyroidism, your provider will prescribe thyroid hormone replacement.
You should have regular thyroid tests. Your thyroid may be working normally within 12 to 18 months after the symptoms start. If so, you may be able to stop treatment. Thyroid function will return to normal in 80% of women.
- Postpartum thyroiditis happens when a woman’s thyroid becomes inflamed after having a baby. It may first cause the thyroid to be overactive. But in time it leads to an underactive thyroid.
- Medical experts don’t know what causes this condition.
- You are more likely to get it if you had antithyroid antibodies before pregnancy. Other risk factors include having type 1 diabetes or a history of thyroid problems.
- A blood test can usually tell if you have an overactive or underactive thyroid.
- Treatment is based on how severe your symptoms are.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.