Conditions & Treatments

Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition characterized by inflamed, red, raised areas that often develop as silvery scales on the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back.

Psoriasis

What is psoriasis?

Psoriasis, an autoimmune disorder, is a chronic skin condition characterized by inflamed, red, raised areas that often develop into silvery scales on the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. Psoriasis can also be associated with arthritis. It is estimated to affect 7.5 million people in the U.S.

What causes psoriasis?

The cause of psoriasis is unknown; however, it is thought to be caused by abnormally fast-growing and shedding skin cells. The skin cells multiply quickly, causing the skin to shed every three to four days. This may be caused by a trigger, such as injury, sunburn, certain classes of medications, infection, stress, alcohol, or tobacco. Though not contagious, the condition is hereditary. Psoriasis is often recurrent and occurs in varying severities.

What are the symptoms of psoriasis?

The following are the most common symptoms of psoriasis. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently, as psoriasis comes in several forms and severities. Symptoms may include:

  • Discoid psoriasis (also called plaque psoriasis). This type of psoriasis is the most common. Symptoms may include patches of red, raised skin on the trunk, arms, legs, knees, elbows, genitals, and scalp. Nails may also thicken, become pitted, and separate from the nail beds.

  • Guttate psoriasis. This type of psoriasis affects mostly children. Symptoms may include many small patches of red, raised skin. A sore throat usually proceeds the onset of this type of psoriasis.

  • Pustular psoriasis. Symptoms may include small pustules (pus-containing blisters) all over the body or just on the palms, soles, and other small areas.

The symptoms of psoriasis may resemble other skin conditions. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.

How is psoriasis diagnosed?

When the condition progresses to the development of silvery scales, the doctor can usually diagnose psoriasis with a medical examination of the nails and skin. Confirmation of diagnosis may be done with a skin biopsy (taking a small skin specimen to examine under a microscope).

Treatment for psoriasis

Specific treatment for psoriasis will be determined by your doctor based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Severity of the condition

  • Your tolerance of specific medications, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the condition

  • Your opinion or preference

The goal of treatment is to reduce inflammation and slow down the rapid growth and shedding of skin cells. At the present time, there is no cure for psoriasis. Treatment may include:

  • Ointments and creams (to moisturize the skin)

  • Sunlight or ultraviolet light exposure (under a doctor's supervision)

  • Steroids (such as cortisone creams)

  • Vitamin D cream

  • Creams containing salicylic acid or coal tar

  • Anthralin. An anti-inflammatory drug that treats the thicker, hard-to-treat patches of psoriasis.

  • Methotrexate. An anti-cancer drug that interrupts the growth of skin cells.

  • Oral or topical retinoids

  • Immunosuppressive medications (such as Cyclosporine)

  • Immunomodulary agents (biologic such as TNF-α inhibitors) 

Outlook

There is no known way to prevent psoriasis. Although it is a lifelong condition, it often can be controlled with appropriate treatment. Keeping the skin clean and moist, and avoiding person-specific psoriasis triggers (excessive stress, for example) may help decrease flare-ups.  

Treatment Programs


Massachusetts General Hospital understands that a variety of factors influence patients' health care decisions. That's just one reason why we're dedicated to ensuring patients understand their diagnosis and treatment options. Because a single option might not serve all patients, we offer a wide range of coordinated treatments and related services across the hospital. Patients should consult with their primary care doctor or other qualified health care provider for medical advice and diagnosis information.

Select a treatment program for more information:



MassGeneral Hospital for Children

  • Pediatric Rheumatology Program
    Pediatric rheumatologists at MassGeneral Hospital for Children specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of all rheumatic and inflammatory conditions of infants, children and adolescents.
Department of Dermatology

  • The Medical Dermatology Program
    The Medical Dermatology program at Massachusetts General Hospital is a full-service dermatology practice that provides care for all skin, hair and nail conditions.
  • Khosrow Momtaz Phototherapy Center
    The Khosrow Momtaz Phototherapy Center at Massachusetts General Hospital has been at the forefront of ultraviolet radiation therapy for chronic skin conditions for more than 30 years.

The following related clinical trials and research studies are currently seeking participants at Massachusetts General Hospital. Search for clinical trials and studies in another area of interest.

Challenge Your Psoriasis

You may be eligible to participate in a research study of an investigational medication

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Departments and Centers at Mass General have a reputation for excellence in patient care. View a list of all departments.