Treatment Programs

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Pediatric Imaging

The Pediatric Imaging Program at Massachusetts General Hospital Imaging specializes in ensuring the safety and comfort of child patients while providing the latest technology and the expertise of specialized pediatric radiologists.

The Pediatric Imaging Program at Mass General Imaging provides:

  • A full suite of exams including MRI, CT, bone densitometry and ultrasound.
  • Leading-edge technology, including the latest ultrasound, MRI, and CT scanners.

Special attention for special patients

From the moment a child arrives, the staff of Mass General Imaging works hard to make the imaging process as comfortable and safe as possible. From age-appropriate playroom/waiting rooms to child-friendly descriptions of what to expect, we aim to ease anxiety. The nurses and technologists that young patients will encounter specialize in pediatric exams. In addition, a full-time child-life specialist—an expert who encourages and supports kids through the trying exams—is on hand to help ensure a smooth and successful exam. In many cases, this special attention can reduce or eliminate the need for sedation.

Emphasis on safety

Our commitment to safety extends through everything we do, from exam-room procedures to leading-edge research. We are committed to minimizing radiation exposure for all patients, but especially for children. In addition to multiple safeguards to prevent accidental exposure, we strive to continually improve the protocols that govern each type of scan—so that we can use less radiation but still obtain images sufficient for accurate diagnoses. For example, in a typical pediatric CT scan we may use less than half as much radiation as in an adult scan (and our levels for adult scans already are lower than the recommendations of the American College of Radiology). In addition, we employ physicists and engineers to calibrate and maintain our equipment at the highest level, and we invest to replace outmoded equipment and bring the latest technology to our patients.

Specialist radiologists, dedicated to your care

Massgeneral hospital
for children

MassGeneral Hospital for Children

When it comes to pediatric patients, our radiologists work as part of the MassGeneral Hospital For Children, a multidisciplinary organization that provides family-centered care for infants, children, and adolescents. Patients have access to virtually every specialty and subspecialty of medicine and surgery, as well as compassionate preventive and primary care to keep children well in the first place.

At Mass General Imaging, every scan is read by a specialty-trained radiologist: an expert who has extensive training and real-world experience in both the imaging technology being used and the patients and conditions in focus. Our dedicated pediatric radiologists belong to the Pediatric Imaging division of the Mass General Department of Radiology, where they work within a team tightly focused on pediatric care. In addition to the training all radiologists receive, these specialists possess additional expertise on the diseases and conditions that impact children, as well as how to most effectively—and safely—use imaging technology to diagnose young patients.

Coordinated care

We work in close consultation with your doctor to schedule and plan your exam. Then we provide swift results, including a written report and image access (if your doctor desires), within 48 to 72 hours.

 

 

The Pediatric Imaging Program at Massachusetts General Hospital Imaging offers diagnostic exams for the following conditions.

Acromegaly

Acromegaly is a disorder of the pituitary gland which produces excess growth hormones and thus results in excessive growth, first in the hands and feet, as soft tissue begins to swell.

Acute Bronchitis

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the breathing tubes (airways) that are called bronchi, which causes increased production of mucus and other changes.

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood in which too many granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, are produced in the bone marrow.

Acute Spinal Cord Injury

Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic injury that either results in a bruise (also called a contusion), a partial tear, or a complete tear (called a transection) in the spinal cord.

Adrenal Tumors / Pheochromocytoma

Tumors of the adrenal glands can cause many problems by excess secretion of certain adrenal-produced hormones, most often resulting in high blood pressure, which can be extreme.

Allergies

Allergies are among the most common heath problems, with more than 50 million people afflicted with asthma, seasonal hay fever, or other allergy-related conditions each year.

Alpha Thalassemia

halassemia is an inherited disorder that affects the production of normal hemoglobin (a type of protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body).

Amenorrhea

Amenorrhea is a menstrual condition characterized by absent menstrual periods for more than three monthly menstrual cycles.

Anemia of Folate Deficiency

Folate deficiency is the lack of folic acid (one of the B vitamins) in the blood, which can cause a type of anemia known as megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia.

Anemias

There are many types of anemias that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview.

Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of a blood vessel resulting in an abnormal widening or ballooning greater than 50 percent of the normal diameter

Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis that affects the spine.

Aplastic Anemia

Aplastic anemia occurs when the bone marrow produces too few red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets, making the patient susceptible to infection and making it more difficult for blood to clot.

Appendicitis

Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, a finger-like portion of the large intestine that generally hangs down from the lower right side of the abdomen.

Arthritis

Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases are characterized by pain, swelling, and limited movement in joints and connective tissues in the body.

Asthma

Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory disease in which the airways become sensitive to allergens (any substance that triggers an allergic reaction).

Asthma and Children

Approximately 6.5 million children have been diagnosed with asthma according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Asthma is one of the most common, serious, chronic diseases among children, accounting for 14 million absences from school each year.

Ataxia

Ataxia causes a failure of muscle control in the arms and legs which may result in a lack of balance, coordination and possibly a disturbance in gait.

Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T)

Ataxia telangiectasia is a rare childhood disease that affects the nervous system and some other body systems.

Autoimmune Hepatitis

Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver, resulting in liver cell damage and destruction. In autoimmune hepatitis, the body's own immune system destroys liver cells.

Avascular Necrosis

Avascular necrosis is a disease that may cause bone or joint collapse as a result of loss of blood supply to the bone due to injury or other causes (such as long-term use of certain medications).

Back and Neck Pain

Low back pain can range from mild, dull, annoying pain, to persistent, severe, disabling pain in the lower back that restrict mobility. Neck pain is pain that occurs in the area of the seven cervical vertebrae in the neck area.

Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome)

Basal cell nevus syndrome is caused by a tumor suppressor gene, called PTCH, located on chromosome 9. Mutations in this gene may increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

Bell's Palsy

Bell's palsy is an unexplained episode of facial muscle weakness or paralysis that begins suddenly and worsens over three to five days. This condition results from damage to the 7th (facial) cranial nerve, and pain and discomfort usually occurs on one side of the face or head.

Benign Bone Tumors

There are many benign bone tumors that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview.

Beta Thalassemia (Cooley's Anemia)

Beta thalassemia is caused by mutations in the beta chain of the hemoglobin molecule. There are two types of Beta Thalassemia: beta thalassemia major (Cooley’s anemia) - both (two) beta chain genes have deletions, causing the most severe type of beta thalassemia. Thalassemia major patients need frequent blood transfusions and may not survive a normal lifespan. During the first one to two years of life, they can be pale, fussy, have a poor appetite, and have many infections. Without treatment, the spleen, liver, and heart become enlarged, and bones can become thin and brittle. A major problem is the build up of iron in the heart and other organs, resulting in heart failure for some patients in their teens or early 20s. halassemia minor or thalassemia trait - one beta gene has a deletion, resulting in anemia. Thalassemia minor is further divided into: thalassemia minima - person has few or no symptoms. thalassemia intermedia - person has moderate to severe anemia.

Biliary Cirrhosis / Bile Duct Cancer

Biliary cirrhosis is a rare form of liver cirrhosis, caused by disease or defects of the bile ducts.

Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer occurs when there are abnormal, cancerous cells growing in the bladder.

Bleeding / Clotting Disorders

Abnormalities in platelets (which regulate clotting of the blood), or defects in the blood vessels themselves, can lead to excessive bleeding. Similarly, excess clotting can cause problems by obstructing veins and arteries.

Blood Disorders

There are many Hematology & Blood Disorders that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview.

Bone Cancers

There are different types of bone cancers, which are typically defined as a malignant (cancerous) tumor of the bone that destroys normal bone tissue.

Brain Tumors

A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The tumor can either originate in the brain itself, or come from another part of the body and travel to the brain (metastasize). Brain tumors may be classified as either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), depending on their behavior.

Bruxism

Bruxism is the term that refers to an incessant grinding and clenching of the teeth, unintentionally, and at inappropriate times.

Bursitis

Bursitis is caused an inflamed bursa, a closed, fluid-filled sac that functions as a cushion and gliding surface to reduce friction between tissues of the body.

Candidiasis (Yeast Infection)

Candidiasis, sometimes called moniliasis or a yeast infection, is an infection caused by yeast on the skin and/or mucous membranes.

Cardiac Sarcoma

Cardiac sarcoma is a type of tumor that occurs in the heart. Cardiac sarcoma is a primary malignant (cancerous) tumor.

Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition in which the median nerve is compressed as it passes through an opening from the wrist to the hand called the carpal tunnel.

Cat Scratch Disease

Cat scratches and bites can cause cat scratch disease, a bacterial infection carried in cat saliva.

Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine because of a sensitivity to gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats. This hereditary disorder interferes with the absorption of nutrients from food.

Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a deep bacterial infection of the skin.

Cerebral Aneurysm

A cerebral aneurysm (also called an intracranial aneurysm or brain aneurysm) is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of an artery in the brain, resulting in an abnormal widening or ballooning. Because there is a weakened spot in the artery wall, there is a risk for rupture (bursting) of the aneurysm.

Chickenpox (Varicella)

Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease, usually associated with childhood. The disease is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Transmission occurs from person-to-person by direct contact or through the air.

Cholangitis

Cholangitis is an inflammation of the bile duct system that is usually related to a bacterial infection. The bile duct system is the drainage system that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the area of the small intestine called the duodenum. The infection may occur suddenly or may be chronic.

Cholecystitis

Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder wall and nearby abdominal lining. Cholecystitis is usually caused by a gallstone in the cystic duct, the duct that connects the gallbladder to the hepatic duct.

Chondroblastoma

Sometimes called Codman's tumor, a chondroblastoma is a rare type of benign bone tumor that originates from cartilage.

Chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that develops in cartilage cells.

Chronic Bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is a long-term inflammation of the bronchi, which results in increased production of mucus, as well as other changes.

Chronic Liver Disease / Cirrhosis

Chronic liver disease is marked by the gradual destruction of liver tissue over time. Several liver diseases fall under this category, including cirrhosis of the liver and fibrosis of the liver.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

COPD is a term that refers to a group of lung diseases that can interfere with normal breathing.

Chronic Pain

Pain is an unpleasant feeling that lets you know that something may be wrong. It is one of the body's warning signals that indicates a problem that needs attention.

Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth abnormalities of the mouth and lip. Cleft palate occurs when the roof of the mouth does not completely close, leaving an opening that can extend into the nasal cavity. left lip is an abnormality in which the lip does not completely form during fetal development.

Colic

Colic is a problem that affects some babies during the first three to four months of life. A child who is otherwise well, who cries or is fussy several hours a day, especially from 6 pm to 10 pm, with no apparent reason, may have colic. he face may be flushed. The abdomen may be tense with legs drawn toward it. The hands may be clenched and the feet are often cold.

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer is malignant cells found in the colon or rectum.

Congenital Hand Deformities

Congenital anomalies are deformities that are present at birth.

Congenital Heart Defects

Congenital heart defects occur when the heart or related blood vessels do not develop properly before or at birth.

Congenital Liver Defects

Congenital liver defects are rare liver diseases present at birth such as biliary atresia, when the bile ducts are absent or have developed abnormally, and choledochal cyst, a malformation of the hepatic duct that can obstruct flow of bile in infants.

Contact Dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is a physiological reaction that occurs after skin comes in contact with certain substances.

Craniosynostosis (Craniofacial Anomaly)

Craniosynostosis is a condition in which sutures close too early, causing problems with normal brain and skull growth.

Crohn's Disease

Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that is a chronic condition that may recur at various times over a lifetime.

Croup

Croup is a disease caused by a virus that leads to swelling in the airways and problems breathing.

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

Cubital tunnel syndrome feels similar to the pain that occurs from hitting the "funny" bone in your elbow. The "funny" bone in the elbow is actually the ulnar nerve, a nerve that crosses the elbow (the ulnar nerve begins in the side of the neck and ends in the fingers).

Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is a disease caused when T-lymphocytes become malignant and affect the skin. T-lymphocytes are the infection-fighting white blood cells in the lymph system that kill harmful bacteria in the body, among other things.

Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited chronic disease that affects the lungs and digestive system. CF causes the body to produce thick, sticky mucus that leads to progressive lung infection and difficulty gaining weight.

Cystocele (Fallen Bladder)

Cystocele is the name for a hernia-like disorder in women that occurs when the wall between the bladder and the vagina weakens, causing the bladder to drop or sag into the vagina.

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Thrombophlebitis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot develops in a vein deep in the body.

Dermatitis

Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin. Dermatitis actually refers to a number of skin conditions that inflame the skin.

Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes may also be known by a variety of other names, including the following: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), juvenile diabetes, brittle diabetes, or sugar diabetes.

Drug-Induced Hepatitis

Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver, resulting in liver cell damage and destruction. Drug-induced hepatitis is rare and is caused by toxic exposure to certain medications, vitamins, herbal remedies, or food supplements.

Dysmenorrhea

Dysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition characterized by severe and frequent menstrual cramps and pain associated with menstruation.

Elbow Pain and Problems

Common elbow problems include the following: arthritis - common forms of arthritis, bursitis, fractures, and injury.

Empty Sella Syndrome

Empty sella syndrome is a condition where the bony structure that houses the pituitary gland is enlarged, sometimes resulting in high fluid pressure inside the skull.

Enchondroma

An enchondroma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) bone tumor that originates from cartilage.

End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)

Renal failure refers to temporary or permanent damage to the kidneys that results in loss of normal kidney function.

Epilepsy and Seizures

Epilepsy is a neurological condition involving the brain that makes people more susceptible to having seizures.

Escherichia coli 0157:H7

A particular strain of E. coli known as E. coli O157:H7 causes a severe intestinal infection in humans. It is the most common strain to cause illness in people.

Ewing Sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is a cancer that occurs primarily in the bone or soft tissue.

Excessive Hairiness (Hirsutism)

Excessive hairiness, also known as hirsutism, is characterized by abnormal hair growth on areas of skin that are not normally hairy.

Fibrous Dysplasia

Fibrous dysplasia is a chronic disorder in which bone expands due to abnormal development of fibrous tissue, often resulting in uneven growth of bones, pain, brittle bones, or bone deformity.

Food Allergies

A food allergy is an abnormal response of the body to a certain food.

Foot Pain and Problems

Foot pain is often caused by improper foot function. Improperly fitted shoes can worsen and, in some cases, cause foot problems.

Fractures

A fracture is a partial or complete bone break. When a fracture occurs, it is classified as either open or closed.

G6PD (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) Deficiency

G6PD deficiency is the lack of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (an enzyme present in red blood cells) in the blood, which can cause a type of anemia known as hemolytic anemia.

Gallstones

Gallstones form when bile stored in the gallbladder hardens into stone-like material.

Gas in the Digestive Tract

Gas in the digestive tract is created from swallowing air or by the breakdown of certain foods by the bacteria that are present in the colon.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) / Heartburn

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a digestive disorder that is caused by gastric acid flowing from the stomach into the esophagus.

Gastroparesis

Gastroparesis is a stomach disorder in which the stomach takes too long in emptying its contents.

Generalized Exfoliative Dermatitis

Generalized exfoliative dermatitis is a severe inflammation of the entire skin surface due to a reaction to certain drugs, or as a result of complications from another skin condition.

Giant Cell Tumor

A giant cell tumor is one that is made up of a large number of benign (non-cancerous) cells that form an aggressive tumor - usually near the end of the bone near a joint.

Giardiasis

Giardiasis is an infectious diarrheal disease caused by the parasite Giardia lamblia, which can be transmitted through oral-fecal contact and by water contaminated by feces.

Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis is a type of glomerular kidney disease in which the kidneys' filters become inflamed and scarred, and slowly lose their ability to remove wastes and excess fluid from the blood to make urine.

Glomerulosclerosis

Glomerulosclerosis is the term used to describe scarring that occurs within the kidneys in the small balls of tiny blood vessels called the glomeruli.

Goodpasture Syndrome

Goodpasture syndrome is a rare, autoimmune disease that can affect the lungs and kidneys.

Hand Pain and Problems

There are many common hand problems that can interfere with activities of daily living (ADLs),

Hashimotos Thyroiditis

Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common form of thyroiditis.

Head Injury

A head injury is a broad term that describes a vast array of injuries that occur to the scalp, skull, brain, and underlying tissue and blood vessels in the head.

Headache

A headache is pain or discomfort in the head or face area.

Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)

Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells (RBCs) in the urine.

Hemochromatosis

Hemochromatosis, also called iron overload disease, is one of the most common genetic disorder in the US.

Hemolytic Anemia

Hemolytic anemia is a disorder in which the red blood cells are destroyed faster than the bone marrow can produce them.

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition that mostly affects children under the age of 10. It is often characterized by damage to the lining of blood vessel walls, destruction of red blood cells, and kidney failure.

Hemophilia

Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding, or coagulation, disorder. Children with hemophilia lack the ability to stop bleeding because of the low levels, or complete absence, of specific proteins, called "factors," in their blood that are necessary for clotting.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a highly contagious and sometimes serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a blood-borne microorganism transmitted by exposure to the hepatitis B virus through infectious body fluids.

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C (once called non-A, non-B hepatitis) is a liver disease caused by a recently identified blood-borne virus.

Hiatal Hernia

A hiatal hernia occurs when the upper part of the stomach pushes up into the chest through a small opening in the diaphragm, the muscle that separates the stomach from the chest.

Hip Fracture

A hip fracture is a break in the femur (thigh bone) of the hip joint.

Hip Problems

The following are some of the most common hip problems: arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, traumatic arthritis, avascular necrosis, bursitis, and hip pointer.

HIV / AIDS

HIV/AIDS is a syndrome that kills cells of the immune system, impairing the body’s ability to fight infection.

Hodgkin's Disease

Hodgkin disease is a type of lymphoma, a cancer in the lymphatic system.

Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is caused by overactive parathyroid glands. Overactive parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormones, which in turn stimulate increased levels of calcium in the blood stream.

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism means overactivity of the thyroid gland, resulting in too much thyroid hormone in the bloodstream.

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)

Hypoglycemia is a condition characterized by a glucose (blood sugar) level that is too low to effectively fuel the body's blood cells.

Hypoparathyroidism

Underactive parathyroid glands do not produce enough parathyroid hormones. This causes low levels of calcium in the blood.

Hypopituitarism

Hypopituitarism, also called an underactive pituitary gland, is a condition that affects the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland - usually resulting in a partial or complete loss of functioning of that lobe.

Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is the condition in which the thyroid is underactive (i.e., it is producing an insufficient amount of thyroid hormones).

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

TP is a blood disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Nephropathy

IgA nephropathy is a chronic kidney disease that may progress over a period of 10 to 20 years, and can lead to end-stage renal disease.

Indigestion

Indigestion, also known as dyspepsia, is a painful or burning feeling in the upper abdomen and is usually accompanied by nausea, bloating or gas, a feeling of fullness, and, sometimes, vomiting.

Infectious Arthritis

Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint (synovial) fluid and joint tissues.

Infectious Mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis, also known as mononucleosis, "mono," or glandular fever, is characterized by swollen lymph glands and chronic fatigue.

Influenza

Influenza (or flu) is a highly contagious viral respiratory tract infection.

Inguinal Hernia

A hernia occurs when a section of intestine protrudes through a weakness in the abdominal muscles. A hernia that occurs in the groin area is called an inguinal hernia.

Interstitial Lung Disease (Pulmonary Fibrosis)

Interstitial lung diseases are named after the tissue between the air sacs of the lungs called the interstitium - the tissue affected by fibrosis (scarring).

Iron-Deficiency Anemia

The most common cause of anemia is iron deficiency. Iron is needed to form hemoglobin.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an intestinal disorder that causes the following: crampy pain, gassiness, bloating, changes in bowel habits.

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is a form of arthritis in children ages 16 or younger that causes inflammation and stiffness of joints for more than six weeks.

Kidney Cancer

Kidney cancer begins in the kidneys - two large, bean-shaped organs - one located to the left, and the other to the right of the backbone.

Kidney Stones

A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms from crystallization of excreted substances in the urine.

Knee Pain and Problems

Many knee problems are a result of the aging process and continual wear and stress on the knee joint (i.e., arthritis). Other knee problems are a result of an injury or a sudden movement that strains the knee.

Kyphosis

A normal spine, when viewed from behind appears straight. However, a spine affected by kyphosis shows evidence of a forward curvature of the back bones (vertebrae) in the upper back area, giving a "humpback" appearance.

Lactose Intolerance

Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)

Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is characterized by pain in the back side of the elbow and forearm, along the thumb side when the arm is alongside the body with the thumb turned away. The pain is caused by damage to the tendons that bend the wrist backward away from the palm.

Latex Allergy

Some children and adults have an allergy or sensitivity to latex (rubber). Reactions can be seen when products made from latex come in contact with the person's skin, mucous membranes (like the mouth, genitals, bladder or rectum), or the bloodstream (during surgery).

Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

The risk for breast cancer and many other forms of cancer is increased with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a genetic autosomal dominant cancer syndrome.

Ligament Injuries to the Knee

Ligament injuries to the knee include injuries to one of the four knee ligaments (elastic bands of tissue that connect bones to each other).

Liver Tumors

Tumors are abnormal masses of tissue that form when cells begin to reproduce at an increased rate. The liver can grow both non-cancerous (benign) and cancerous (malignant) tumors.

Low Back Pain

Low back pain can range from mild, dull, annoying pain, to persistent, severe, disabling pain in the lower back. Pain in the lower back can restrict mobility and interfere with normal functioning.

Lumbar Disc Disease (Herniated Disc)

Lumbar disc disease occurs in the lumbar area of the spine. As discs degenerate, fragments of the disc material can press on the nerve roots located just behind the disc space, causing pain, numbness or changes in sensation.

Lumbar Strain (Weight Lifter's Back)

A lumbar strain is an injury to the lower back, which results in damaged tendons and muscles that spasm and feel sore.

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is cancer that usually starts in the lining of the bronchi (the main airways of the lungs), but can also begin in other areas of the respiratory system, including the trachea, bronchioles, or alveoli.

Lyme Disease

While most tick bites are harmless, several species can cause life-threatening diseases. Two of these well-known diseases are Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Lyme disease.

Measles

Measles is a viral illness characterized by a distinct rash and a fever.

Medial Epicondylitis (Golfers and Baseball Elbow)

Medial epicondylitis, also known as golfer's elbow, baseball elbow, suitcase elbow, or forehand tennis elbow, is characterized by pain from the elbow to the wrist on the palm side of the forearm.

Megaloblastic (Pernicious) Anemia

Megaloblastic anemia is a type of anemia characterized by very large red blood cells.

Melanoma

Melanoma is a disease of the skin in which cancer cells are found in the melanocytes, the cells that produce color in the skin or pigment known as melanin.

Meningitis

Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that surround the brain.

Merkel Cell Cancer

Merkel cell cancer is also known as neuroendocrine cancer of the skin, or trabecular cancer.

Mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis, also known as mononucleosis, "mono," or glandular fever, is characterized by swollen lymph glands and chronic fatigue.

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system. It is thought to be an autoimmune disorder. It is an unpredictable condition that can be relatively benign, disabling, or devastating.

Mumps

Mumps is an acute and highly contagious viral illness that usually occurs in childhood. Spread by airborne droplets from the upper respiratory tract, the disease usually takes two to three weeks to appear.

Neck Pain

The neck is located between the head and the shoulders. Because of its location and range of motion, it is often left unprotected and subject to injury.

Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is a condition often characterized by the following: very high levels of protein in the urine, low levels of protein in the blood, swelling, especially around the eyes, feet, and hands, as well as high cholesterol.

Neurocutaneous Syndromes

Neurocutaneous syndrome is a broad term for a group of neurologic disorders that can cause tumors to grow inside the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin and skeletal bones.

Neurogenic Bladder

The following problems are often associated with a neurogenic bladder: urine leakage, urine retention, damage to the tiny blood vessels in the kidney, and infection of the bladder or ureters.

Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin disease is a type of lymphoma, which is a cancer in the lymphatic system.

Obesity

Obesity increases the risk for many diseases, especially heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes.

Oral Cancer

Oral cancer is cancer found in the oral cavity (the mouth area) and the oropharynx (the throat area at the back of the mouth).

Osteochondroma

Also called osteocartilaginous exostoses, osteochondroma is an overgrowth of cartilage and bone near the end of the bone near the growth plate.

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), also known as brittle-bone disease, is a genetic (inherited) disorder characterized by bones that break easily without a specific cause.

Osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis is an inflammation or swelling of bone tissue that is usually the result of an infection.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease in which there is a loss of bone mass and destruction of bone tissue, causing weakening of the bones in the hips, spine and wrists.

Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that develops in the osteoblast cells that form the outer covering of bone.

Other Liver Disorders

An autoimmune disorder is any reaction or attack of a person's immune system against its own organs and tissues.

Other Types of Skin Cancer: Kaposi's Sarcoma / Paget's Disease

Kaposi's sarcoma is a skin cancer that starts in the skin's blood vessels. Kaposi's sarcoma comes in two forms: a slow-growing form, and a more aggressive, faster-spreading form.

Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a disease in which malignant cells are found in an ovary.

Ovarian Cancer and Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC)

The risk for ovarian cancer is increased with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), an autosomal dominant cancer genetic syndrome.

Overactive Adrenal Glands / Cushings Syndrome

When adrenal glands produce excessive amounts of certain hormones, they are called "overactive."

Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the US. Pancreatic cancer occurs when malignant cells grow out of control.

Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas. The inflammation may be sudden (acute) or ongoing (chronic).

Parathyroid Tumor

A parathyroid tumor is a growth inside a parathyroid gland. Parathyroid tumors may cause increased levels of parathyroid hormones secreted by the parathyroid glands, leading to hyperparathyroidism.

Patellar Tendonitis (Jumper's Knee)

Patellar tendonitis, also known as jumper’s knee, is a condition caused by inflammation of the tendon connecting the kneecap to the shin bone, often caused by overuse of the knee joint.

Patellofemoral Stress Syndrome (Runner's Knee)

Patellofemoral stress syndrome is a condition common among runners involving knee pain caused by irritation of the cartilage of the kneecap.

Pelvic Pain

Pelvic pain may originate in genital or extragenital organs in and around the pelvis, or it may be psychological, which can make pain feel worse or actually cause a sensation of pain, when no physical problem is present.

Pelvis Problems

Two of the more common pelvic problems include pelvic fractures and osteitis pubis.

Periodontal Diseases

Periodontal diseases, also called gum diseases, are serious bacterial infections that destroy the gums and the surrounding tissues of the mouth.

Peripheral Vascular Disease

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a slow and progressive circulation disorder. It may involve disease in any of the blood vessels outside of the heart and diseases of the lymph vessels - the arteries, veins, or lymphatic vessels.

Peritonitis

Peritonitis is an infection caused by an inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity, known as the peritoneum.

Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

The risk for breast and ovarian cancer is increased with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), a rare early-onset autosomal dominant disorder, associated with specific physical characteristics in addition to increased cancer risks.

Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or chemical irritants.

Poison Ivy / Poison Oak

There are three native American plants that collectively may be called poison ivy: poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac.

Polycystic Kidney Disease

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous cysts filled with fluid in the kidneys.

Polycythemia Vera

Polycythemia vera is a rare blood disorder in which there is an increase in all blood cells, particularly red blood cells.

Primary Hyperparathyroidism

Primary hyperparathyroidism is a metabolic disorder in which one (or more) of the parathyroid glands produces too much parathyroid hormone, which can result in the loss of bone tissue.

Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension is a lung disorder in which the blood pressure in the pulmonary artery rises far above normal levels.

Prostate Cancer

Early prostate cancer may not present any symptoms and can only be found with regular prostate examinations by your physician.

Pseudocysts of the Pancreas

Pseudocysts of the pancreas are abnormal collections of fluid, dead tissue, pancreatic enzymes, and blood that can lead to a painful mass in the pancreas.

Psoriatic Arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis is a form of arthritis associated with psoriasis. The disease is similar to rheumatoid arthritis in symptoms, characterized by joint inflammation.

Pulmonary Embolism

A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blood clot that develops in a blood vessel elsewhere in the body (most commonly from the leg), travels to an artery in the lung, and forms an occlusion (blockage) of the artery.

Pulmonary Emphysema

Emphysema is a chronic lung condition in which alveoli, or air sacs, may be destroyed, narrowed, collapsed, stretched or over-inflated.

Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a rare disease that results from inflammation.

Raynauds Phenomenon

Raynaud's phenomenon or, simply, Raynaud's, is a disorder characterized by decreased blood flow - usually to the fingers, and less frequently to the ears, toes, nipples, knees, or nose.

Reactive Arthritis (Reiter's Syndrome)

eactive arthritis, also known as Reiter's syndrome, is a type of arthritis that occurs as a reaction to an infection somewhere in the body.

Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a digestive disorder that is caused by gastric acid flowing from the stomach into the esophagus.

Renal Vascular Disease

Renal vascular disease is the name given to a variety of complications that affect the arteries and veins of the kidneys.

Repetitive Motion Injury

Repetitive motion injuries, also called repetitive stress injuries, are temporary or permanent injuries to muscles, nerves, ligaments, and tendons caused by performing the same motion over and over again.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic, autoimmune disease, is the most crippling form of arthritis and affects approximately 2.1 million Americans.

Rotator Cuff Injury

An injury to the rotator cuff, such as a tear, may happen suddenly when falling on an outstretched hand or develop over time due to repetitive activities.

Rubella (German Measles)

Rubella, sometimes called German measles, is an acute viral infection that causes a mild illness in children and slightly more severe illness in adults.

Sciatica

Sciatica, also known as lumbar radiculopathy, is a pain that originates along the sciatic nerve, which extends from the back of the pelvis down the back of the thigh.

Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also called systemic sclerosis, is a chronic, degenerative disease that affects the joints, skin, and internal organs.

Scoliosis

A spine affected by scoliosis shows evidence of a lateral, or sideways, curvature, and a rotation of the back bones (vertebrae), giving the appearance that the person is leaning to one side.

Sebaceous Cysts

Sebaceous cysts are harmless, slow-growing bumps under the skin, often appearing on the scalp, face, ears, back, or groin area.

Seizures

Epilepsy is a neurological condition involving the brain that makes people more susceptible to having seizures.

Septicemia

Septicemia is the clinical name for blood poisoning.

Shin Splints

Shin splints are pains at the front of the lower legs caused by exercise, often after a period of inactivity.

Shoulder Dislocation

Dislocation of the shoulder means the displacement of the upper arm bone (humerus) out of the shoulder joint.

Shoulder Pain and Problems

Common shoulder problems include the following: dislocation, separation, bursitis, impingement syndrome, tendonitis, rotator cuff tear, adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), and fracture.

Shoulder Tendonitis

Tendonitis of the shoulder is an inflammation of the rotator cuff and/or biceps tendon.

Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder characterized by defective hemoglobin (a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body).

Skin Cancer

Skin cancer is a malignant tumor that grows in the skin cells and accounts for more than 50 percent of all cancers.

Soft-Tissue Injuries

Many activities can lead to soft-tissue damage of muscles, ligaments, and tendons.

Spinal Cord Injury

Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is due to a traumatic injury that can either result in a bruise (also called a contusion), a partial tear, or a complete tear (called a transection) in the spinal cord.

Sprains and Strains

The majority of sports injuries are caused by minor trauma involving muscles, ligaments, and/or tendons, including contusions (bruises), sprains and strains.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell skin cancer (sometimes referred to as non-melanoma carcinoma) may appear as nodules, or as red, scaly patches of skin.

Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers (Peptic Ulcers)

An ulcer is an open sore, or lesion, usually found on the skin or mucous membrane areas of the body.

Stomach Cancer

Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer that starts in any part of the stomach.

Stroke

Stroke, also called brain attack, occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Lupus)

Systemic lupus erythematosus, also known as SLE, or simply lupus, involves periodic episodes of inflammation of and damage to the joints, tendons, other connective tissues, and organs, including the heart, lungs, blood vessels, brain, kidneys and skin.

Tendonitis

Two major problems associated with tendons include tendonitis and tenosynovitis.

Testicular Cancer

Cancer that develops in a testicle is called testicular cancer.

Thalassemias

Thalassemia is an inherited disorder that affects the production of normal hemoglobin (a type of protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues in the body).

Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

A thoracic aortic aneurysm, also called TAA, is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of the thoracic aorta (the largest artery in the body), resulting in an abnormal widening or ballooning.

Thrombocythemia

Thrombocythemia is a myeloproliferative disorder. It is characterized by the production of too many platelets in the bone marrow.

Thrombosis

Thrombosis occurs when clots obstruct veins (blood vessels that carry blood from the body back into the heart) or arteries (blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body).

Thyroid Tumors

Thyroid tumors are either benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous) growths.

Torn Meniscus

Meniscus tears can occur during a rotating movement while bearing weight, such as when twisting the upper leg while the foot stays in one place during sports and other activities.

Torticollis (Wryneck)

Torticollis, also known as wryneck, is a twisting of the neck that causes the head to rotate and tilt at an odd angle.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic bacterial infection that usually infects the lungs, although other organs are sometimes involved.

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes may also be known by a variety of other names, including the following: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), juvenile diabetes, brittle diabetes, and sugar diabetes.

Types of Muscular Dystrophy and Neuromuscular Diseases

Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited diseases that are characterized by weakness and wasting away of muscle tissue, with or without the breakdown of nerve tissue.

Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease in which the inner lining of the large intestine (colon or bowel) and rectum become inflamed.

Urinary Incontinence

Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract infections describe a health problem that results from a bacterial infection along the urinary tract.

Urticaria / Hives

Urticaria, or hives, is a condition in which red, itchy, and swollen areas appear on the skin - usually as an allergic reaction from eating certain foods or taking certain medicines.

Uterine Cancer

Cancers that occur in each part of the uterus have their own names, such as cervical cancer or endometrial cancer, but are sometimes broadly defined as uterine cancer because the structure is part of the uterus.

Vaginal Cancer

Cancer of the vagina, a rare kind of cancer in women, is a disease in which malignant cells are found in the tissues of the vagina.

Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are enlarged veins that are visible through the skin and may appear as blue or purple twisted, knot-like cords.

Vesicoureteral Reflux

Vesicoureteral reflux occurs when urine dwelling in the bladder flows back into the ureters and often back into the kidneys.

Viral Hepatitis Overview

Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver, resulting in liver cell damage and destruction.

Vulvar Cancer

Vulvar cancer is a malignancy that can occur on any part of the external organs, but most often affects the labia majora or labia minora.

Whiplash Injury

Whiplash is an injury to the neck caused by the neck bending forcibly forward and then backward, or vice versa.

Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

Caused by a bacterium, whooping cough is characterized by paroxysms (intense fits or spells) of coughing that end with the characteristic whoop as air is inhaled.

The following related clinical trials and research studies are currently seeking participants at Massachusetts General Hospital. Search for clinical trials and studies in another area of interest.

Thrall: Healthcare IT can help rads tackle radiation exposure

It's imperative that radiologists proactively find ways to keep radiation dose to a minimum, and healthcare IT can help, according to Dr. James H. Thrall, who spoke on the topic this week at the New York Medical Imaging Informatics Symposium.

Pediatric Imaging Waiting Room Gets New Look

A jungle has crept into the newly renovated MassGeneral Hospital for Children Pediatric Imaging Waiting Room.

Safety: Children and CT Scans

Dushyant Sahani, MD, Director of CT at Massachusetts General Hospital Imaging, answers parents’ questions on the June 2012 study in The Lancet that found that children who get several CT scans have a slightly higher chance of brain cancer and leukemia in later life.

Images of Imaging: CT (computed tomography)

Get an inside look at CT exams at Mass General Imaging. Learn about CT technology, the professionals who guide patients through the exam process, and the specialty-trained radiologists who interpret every scan.

Images of Imaging: MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

Learn about MRI exams at Mass General Imaging. See what MRI scanners and images look like, understand MRI safety, and learn about the specialty-trained radiologists who interpret every scan.

Webster Center takes on radiation-dose reduction

Dr. James H. Thrall, Department of Radiology chairman emeritus, discusses The Webster Center for Advanced Research and Education in Radiation, a unique research effort dedicated to reducing radiation dose for every exam Mass General Imaging performs.

Radiation reduction: Our ongoing commitment

As CT (computed tomography) technology has transformed the practice of medicine, Mass General Imaging has dedicated itself to making sure each exam exposes the patient to the lowest achievable amount of radiation. Department of Radiology Chairman Emeritus James H. Thrall, MD, discusses our decade-long commitment—and our success—regarding this issue.

Decision tools support radiation-reduction efforts

One effective way to reduce radiation exposure is to avoid unnecessary exams. That's why Mass General Imaging has been a leader in developing software tools that guide referring physicians by not only making sure the selected exam matches the patient's needs but also suggesting radiation-free alternatives when appropriate.

Imaging specialists, focused on you

Each radiologist at Mass General Imaging is a specialist in a particular area of the body. Department of Radiology Chairman Emeritus James H. Thrall, MD, explains how patients benefit from the additional specialty training our physicians have completed.

patient

Explore our convenient locations

Mass General Imaging's locations across Massachusetts offer easy access, and every exam is read by a specialty-trained Mass General radiologist.

patient

Radiation safety

Learn how Mass General Imaging works to increase patient safety by reducing radiation exposure.

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Imaging experts, focused on you

Every scan at Mass General Imaging is read by a radiologist with specialty training in the area of the body being studied.