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Pediatric Epilepsy Research Lab: Kevin J. Staley, MD

The Pediatric Epilepsy Research Lab studies how neuronal ion transport and synaptic plasticity alter the spread of epileptic activity in neural networks.

Research Description

Our long-term research goal is the development of new approaches to the treatment of epilepsy based on a clearer understanding of the necessary steps in seizure initiation and propagation.

The two major themes in the lab are neuronal ion transport and the spread of activity in neural networks. Neuronal ion transport underlies signaling at all fast synapses. The importance of neuronal ion transport was underscored by our recent discovery that reversed ion transport in the immature brain was blocking the effects of the anticonvulsants most commonly used to treat neonatal seizures, and that a safe and well-characterized diuretic could ameliorate this condition.

Our work on the spread of excitation in neural networks combines fluorescent imaging of network activity with computerized analysis and modeling to understand how normal and abnormal signaling progresses through neural networks. We have found evidence for reentrant or circular patterns of neural activity that resemble cardiac fibrillation and precede seizures. We are currently testing whether this reentrant activation of neural circuits is the earliest stage of a seizure, and the stage at which intervention is most effective. We are also testing whether long-term reductions in the strength of synaptic connections between neurons in epileptic networks can reduce the probability of seizures.

Principal Investigator

Kevin J. Staley, MD

Kevin J. Staley, MD

  • Joseph P. and Rose F. Kennedy Professor of Child Neurology and Mental Retardation, Harvard Medical School
  • Chief, Pediatric Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital

Research Interests: Epilepsy, synaptic physiology, neuronal ion transport, neural network activity.

Research Techniques: Single cell electrophysiology, in vivo radiotelemetry, ion-sensitive fluorescent imaging of ion transport and neural network activity, computer modeling.

Diseases Studied: Epilepsy


Staley Lab 2013

Research Scientists

Trevor Balena, PhD, Research Fellow

Volodymyr Dzhala, PhD, Instructor in Neurology

Kiyoshi Egawa, MD, PhD, Research Fellow

M. Zelime Elibol MD, R25 Research Fellow 

Joseph Glykys, MD, PhD, R25 Research Fellow

Michael Gutnick DVM, PhD, Research Sabbatical

Kyle Lillis, PhD, Research Fellow

Albert Misko MD, Research Fellow

Waldemar Swiercz, PhD, Instructor in Neurology

Zemin Wang MD, PhD, Research Fellow

Research Assistants, Interns & Technicians

Michelle Mail, Technologist, Lab Manager

Yero Saponjian, Technician

Patti Staley, Staff Assistant

Student Interns

Larry Chen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Hillary Mullan, Oberlin College, OH

William Neylon, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland

Staley Lab Members 2014

Trevor in the research lab Volodymyr Dzhala Kiyoshi Egawa Joseph Glykys
Trevor Balena, PhD Volodymyr Dzhala, PhD Kiyoshi Egawa MD, PhD Joseph Glykys, MD, PhD
Kyle Lillis Michelle Mail  Albert Misko
Yero Saponjian
Kyle Lillis, PhD Michelle Mail Albert Misko, MD Yero Saponjian
Waldemar Swiercz Zemin Wang Zelime Ward  
Waldemar Swiercz, PhD Zemin Wang, MD, PhD M. Zelime Elibol, MD  

Alumni

Research Fellows

Kyung-IL Park, MD, PhD, Neurology Department, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University, South Korea

Ji Lee, MD, PhD, MGH Pediatric Neurology Resident

Kristopher Kahle MD, PhD, MGH Neurosurgery Resident

Yevgeny Berdichevsky, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Lehigh University, PA

Sonya Jakawich, PhD, Project Manager, Salinergy

Helen Sabolek-Consiglio, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Regis College, MA

Jonas Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen, PhD, Senior Scientist, Sensorion Company, France

Chris French, MD, PhD, Physiology Department, University of Melbourne, Australia

Jon Mousalliy, MD, Emergency Medicine, North Shore Medical Center, Salem, MA 

Jennifer Hellier, PhD, Assistant Professor, Director of CREATE Health Scholars, University of Colorado

Student Interns

Camila Cabarello, MIT, Cambridge, MA

Yun Xiang Chu - Harvard medical student (HST program)

Elon Gaffin-Cahn, Union College, NY 

Illustration of study of Glykys et al. 2009

This cover of the journal Neuron illustrates the study of Glykys et al. 2009.

Cortical Seizures in Newborn Infants

Seizure activity in the cerebral cortex of the brain (represented by the white electrographic discharges in the illustration) is transmitted through subcortical brain regions to the muscles of the body, causing convulsions. However, cortical seizures in newborns are frequently observed on electrographic recordings without accompanying convulsions, a dissociation that is exacerbated by anticonvulsant treatment. Most newborn convulsions are treated with anticonvulsant drugs that enhance the activity of GABA, a neurotransmitter that inhibits neuronal activity and seizures by increasing the flow of chloride ions into neurons.

DClamp - Free data acquisition and analysis software for epilepsy animal research.

The main goal of this project is to provide free, open-source data acquisition and analysis software to the epilepsy research community. Our goal is to establish a common platform to facilitate data exchange and cooperation between research centers. DClamp is designed for unsupervised detection of ictal-like and inter-ictal-like events in very large EEG datasets, for example from days to months of continuous recordings. It includes algorithms for automatic detection, quantification, and analysis of seizures (White et al. J Neurosci Methods, 15;152:255-66, 2006) and interictal spikes (Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen et al. J Clin Neurophysiol 27:418-24, 2010; White et al. Epilepsia 51:371-83, 2010).

Currently DClamp can also be used for acquisition of in-vivo and in-vitro signals from as many as 64 separate channels or animals. Examples include chronic EEG data, ECoG data, extracellular field potentials, intracellular potentials, intracellular currents (using low cost acquisition cards). We plan to expand compatible hardware. Future expansions will include synchronization of signal recordings with surveillance videos. Project will be distributed as open source allowing users to modify the code.

Chloride Concentrations and GABA Signaling in Nonconvulsive Seizures

Using a genetically expressed chloride sensor and multiphoton microscopy, we show in this paper that cortical neurons in the developing mammalian brain have much higher chloride concentrations than do subcortical neurons (in the illustration, hotter colors represent higher chloride concentrations). These differences in chloride concentration lead to oppositely directed chloride flow, GABA signaling, and anticonvulsant effects in these two regions. The response of cortical neurons to GABA could be made to match the subcortical response by blocking the transporter that accumulates chloride in cortical neurons. Under these conditions, cortical seizure activity could be controlled as readily as subcortical seizure activity.

These differences provide the first candidate explanation for the puzzling dissociation of convulsions and electrographic seizure activity in newborns, the exacerbation of the dissociation by anticonvulsants, and the potential utility of blocking chloride transporters to improve control of nonconvulsive seizures in newborns.

Read about and apply for residency, fellowship and observership programs at http://www.massgeneral.org/neurology/education/.

Apply for temporary positions (summer interns) through the Bulfinch Temporary Service Web site at http://www.massgeneral.org/careers/temporary.aspx. Search for all opportunities using ID# 2200484.

All applicants should register with the Mass General Careers Web site at http://www.massgeneral.org/careers/viewall.aspx. Request a list of current open positions at mghneurology@partners.org.

  1. Glykys J., Dzhala V., Egawa K., Balena T., Saponjian Y., Kuchibhotla K. V., Bacskai B. J., KahleK. T., Zeuthen T., Staley K.J. Local Impermeant Anions Establish the Neuronal Chloride Concentration. Science 343:670-675, 2014.
  2. Berdichevsky Y, Dryer A, Mahoney M, Pimentel C, Lucini C, Saponjian Y, Usenovic M, and Staley KJ. PI3K‐Akt signaling activates mTOR-mediated epileptogenesis in organotypic hippocampal culture model of posttraumatic epilepsy.  J Neurosci  33:9056-67, 2013
  3. Lillis KP, Kramer MA, Mertz J, Staley KJ, White JA. Pyramidal cells accumulate chloride at seizure onset.  Neurobiol Dis. 2012 Sep;47(3):358-66.
  4. Sabolek HR, Swiercz WB, Lillis K, Cash SS, Huberfeld G, Zhao G, Ste. Marie L, Clemenceau  S, Barsh G, Miles R, Staley KJ: A candidate mechanism underlying the variance of interictal spike propagation.  J Neurosci. 32:3009-3021, 2012.
  5. Dzhala V, Valeeva G, Glykys J, Khazipov R, and Staley KJ.  Traumatic alterations in GABA signaling disrupt hippocampal network activity in the developing brain, J Neurosci. 32:4017-31, 2012
  6. Yevgeny Berdichevsky; Volodymyr Dzhala; Michelle Mail; Corresponding Author: Dr. Kevin Staley. Interictal spikes, seizures and ictal cell death are not necessary for post-traumatic epileptogenesis in vitro. Neurobiology of Disease. 45:774-85, 2012.
  7. Dzhala V, Kuchibhotla KV, Glykys J, Kahle KT, Swiercz W, Feng G, Kuner T, Augustine G, Bacskai BJ, Staley KJ  Progressive NKCC1-dependent neuronal chloride accumulation during neonatal seizures J Neurosci 30:11745-61, 2010.
  8. Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen J. Berdichevsky Y, Swiercz W, Sabolek H, Staley KJ.  Interictal spikes precede ictal discharges in an organotypic hippocampal slice culture model of epileptogenesis.  J Clin Neurophysiol 27:418-24, 2010.
  9. Glykys J, Kuchibhotla KV, Feng G, Kuner T, Augustine G, Bacskai BJ, Staley KJ.  Differences in cortical vs. subcortical GABAergic signaling: a candidate mechanism of electroclinical uncoupling of neonatal seizures.  Neuron 63:657-72, 2009.
  10. White A, Williams PA, Hellier J, Clark S, Dudek FE and Staley KJ. EEG spike activity precedes epilepsy after kainate-induce status epilepticus. Epilepsia in press 2009.
  11. Brumback A and Staley KJ, Thermodynamic regulation of NKCC1-mediated Cl- cotransport underlies plasticity of GABAA signaling in neonatal neurons, J Neurosci 28:1301-12, 2008.
  12. Dzhala V Brumback A and Staley KJ. Bumetanide enhances phenobarbital efficacy in a neonatal seizure model.   Ann Neurol 63:222-235, 2008.
  13. Dzhala VI, Talos DM, Sdrulla DA, Brumback AC, Mathews GC, Benke TA, Delpire EJ, Jensen FE, and Staley KJ. NKCC1 transporter facilitates seizures in the developing brain. Nature Medicine, 11:1205-13, 2005.

NCBI PubMed Publications

Pediatric Epilepsy Research Lab: Kevin J. Staley, MD

Building 114, Charlestown Navy Yard
Massachusetts General Hospital, Neurology Research
114 16th Street, Room 2600
Boston, MA 02129

Phone: 617-643-0363
Fax: 617-643-0141

Public Transportation Access: yes
Disabled Access: yes

E-mail Address

Kevin J. Staley, MD
staley.kevin@mgh.harvard.edu

Patricia Staley
staley.patricia@mgh.harvard.edu

 

Mailing Address

Kevin J. Staley, MD
Mailcode: CNY 114-2-2600
Massachusetts General Hospital, Neurology Research
114 16th Street, Room 2600
Charlestown, MA 02129

Patient Appointments & Clinical Office

General Child Neurology Clinic
Phone: 617-726-3402

Epilepsy Service at Mass General Hospital for Children
Phone: 617-726-6540

Clinical Mailing Address

Kevin J. Staley, MD
Mailcode: WACC 7-708D
Department of Neurology
Massachusetts General Hospital
55 Fruit Street
Boston, MA 02114