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Webster Center for Advanced Research and Education in Radiation

The Webster Center promotes and develops imaging methods that use the lowest achievable radiological exposure to patients and disseminates those methods through dedicated radiation-dose education programs.

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Webster Center video

Department of Radiology Chairman Emeritus James H. Thrall, MD, describes the mission and unique advantage of the Webster Center.

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Mission

The primary mission of the Webster Center for Advanced Research and Education in Radiation is to develop and promote imaging methods that ensure the lowest achievable level of patient exposure to radiation.

Following the example set by its namesake, Edward (Ted) W. Webster, the Center is dedicated to improving patient safety by sharing dose-reduction methods developed at Mass General with radiologists, technologists, and other imaging scientists around the world.

The Webster Center, founded by Department of Radiology Chairman Emeritus James H. Thrall in fall 2010, works toward its goals through:

  • An extensive slate of research
  • The free publication of clinical protocols from Mass General
  • Dedicated dose-reduction education initiatives including continuing-education courses and a fellowship program for visiting radiologists and technologists.


Fellowships

The Webster Center for Advanced Research and Education in Radiation offers national and international visiting fellowships for radiologists and technologists interested in CT radiation dose as it pertains to daily clinical practice.

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our namesake

Edward "Ted" Webster

Edward (Ted)
W. Webster

The Webster Center for Advanced Research and Education in Radiation has been founded in memory of the late Edward (Ted) W. Webster, PhD (1922 - 2005), who distinguished himself as an outstanding leader, educator, and scientist during his 47 years in the Mass General Department of Radiology and on the Harvard Medical School faculty. His leadership roles included radiation safety officer, chairman of the Radiation Safety and Radioactive Drug Research Committees and the Committee on Research, and director of the Division of Radiological Sciences.

He was an active member of many national and international organizations, including the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation III (BEIR III) Committee for the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council. He also contributed significantly to the works of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Council on Radiation Effects and Measurement, the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Council on Radiation Protection (ICRP), and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Committee.

In addition, Dr. Webster was a pioneer in the field of radiology education. He was instrumental in the development of the radiological physics curriculum and examination system for the American Board of Radiology and he founded and directed the New England Roentgen Ray Society's course in radiological physics which, for more than 20 years, was a primary vehicle for the training of radiology residents in New England.

DIRECTOR & FOUNDER

James H. Thrall, MD

Chairman Emeritus, Mass General Department of Radiology

CO-DIRECTORS

Mannudeep K. Kalra, MD

Assistant Radiologist

Divisions of Thoracic and Cardiac Imaging,
Mass General Department of Radiology

Dushyant V. Sahani, MD

Director of CT, Mass General Department of Radiology

FELLOWS

Abdominal Imaging & Intervention

Breast Imaging

Cardiovascular Imaging

CT Imaging

  • Cristy Savage, RTR
    CT Quality Assurance Manager

Emergency imaging

Neurological imaging

Nuclear cardiology

Nuclear medicine & molecular imaging

Pediatric imaging

Thoracic imaging & intervention

Vascular imaging & intervention

 

General

Team: Mannudeep K. Kalra, Sarabjeet Singh, Subba R. Digumarthy, Brian B. Ghoshhajra, James H. Thrall

Projects:

  • CT under 1mSv: A feasibility study with hybrid and pure IRT.
  • Cadaver study to develop educational programs for autopsy-postmortem correlation and low radiation dose CT.
  • Radiation dose and image quality with color coded pediatric CT protocols.
  • To assess the effect of noise reduction filters on images acquired with reduced radiation dose.
  • Assessment of automatic KVp selection technique
  • Assessment of advanced automatic exposure control technique for pediatric dose reduction.
  • Dose registry research and tracking software in collaboration with the American College of Radiology
  • Collaborative research with CMIV (Linkoping, Sweden) on partial IRT and autopsy CT.


Abdominal Imaging

Team: Dushyant Sahani, Naveen Kulkarni

Projects:

  • Protocol optimization for CT
  • Dose reduction for abdominal CT protocols: Inflammatory bowel disease and kidney stones
  • Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction techniques in abdomen for dose reduction.
  • Fully iterative reconstruction technique for CT dose reduction.
  • Low-dose spectral CT application in abdomen.


Cardiac Imaging

Team: Brian B. Ghoshhajra, Manav Siddu, Suhny Abbara, Udo Hoffmann, Mannudeep K. Kalra, Thomas J. Brady, Synho Do

Projects:

  • Radiation dose assessment over past decade with cardiac CT: Trends
  • Radiation dose reduction with cardiac CT using prospective triggering
  • Submilli-Sievert scanning for cardiac CT
  • Use of automatic KVp selection for cardiac CT angiography
  • Anthropomorphic measurements for determination of appropriate patient dose and image quality


Chest Imaging

Team: Victorine V. Muse, Matthew D. Gilman, Amita Sharma, Jo-Anne O. Shepard, Mannudeep K. Kalra, Sarabjeet Singh, Subba R. Digumarthy

Projects:

  • Chest CT under 1mSv: A feasibility study with hybrid and pure IRT.
  • Cadaver study to develop educational programs for autopsy-postmortem correlation and low radiation dose chest CT.
  • To assess the effect of noise reduction filters on images acquired with reduced radiation dose.
  • Assessment of automatic KVp selection technique in chest CT.


Pediatric Radiology

Team: Sjirk J. Westra, Michael S. Gee, Ruth Lim, Mannudeep K. Kalra, Sarabjeet Singh, Debra A. Gervais

Projects:

  • Development of ultrafast sub-milliSievert pediatric CT and CT angiography
  • Intra-procedural monitoring of pediatric chest and cardiac CTA radiation skin exposure
  • Evaluation of CT image quality in relation to dose, and of novel image reconstruction techniques to decrease image noise (such as ASIR)
  • Protocol development with regards to radiation dose optimization in the pediatric radiology division
  • Site Principal Investigator for the development of a national pediatric CT dose registry study with the Image Gently initiative


Neuroradiology

Team: Michael H. Lev, Stuart R. Pomerantz, Rajiv Gupta, Cristy Savage, Shervin Kamalian

Projects:

  • Diagnostically Accurate Sub-mSv Head CT using ASIR: Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment(in cooperation with GE Healthcare)
  • Low CT Radiation Dose Head CTin the Emergency Department using Conventional Scanners: Retrospective Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy
  • Optimization of Image Quality vs Radiation Dose for Spine Protocols
  • Optimal PACS Image Display for Low Dose Head CT


Interventional Radiology

Team: Debra A. Gervais, Shauna Diguna

Projects:

  • Fluoroscopy dose determination for interventional radiology procedure
  • Dose determination and reduction for pediatric IR procedures

 

 

Evolution of Coronary Computed Tomography Radiation Dose Reduction at a Tertiary Referral Center

A large study to be published in the August issue of the American Journal of Medicine reports a record radiation dose reduction of 74.8% to MGH Cardiac CT patients during the past 6 years.

Primary health risks outweigh long-term radiation concerns

Immediate health risks supersede lifetime radiation-induced cancer risk in patients undergoing CT surveillance for testicular cancer, according to a new study.

Experts weigh risks of CT scans

Multiple studies have examined the benefits and risks of CT scans. Read the latest coverage on the issue in USA Today.

New tracking of patient's radiation exposure

Mass General Radiologist-in-Chief James A. Brink, MD discusses radiation dose in The Wall Street Journal.

Study points to the importance of radiation-dose reduction in pediatric CT scans

Published by JAMA Pediatrics, a large study to quantify trends in the use of pediatric CT scans links associated radiation exposure with future cancer risk.

Recent issue of Scientific American examines CT scans and risk of cancer

In its July 2013 issue, Scientific American highlights the unique work of two Mass General researchers in their quest to reduce CT radiation dose.

Peer-reviewed publications

  1. Abbara S, Kropil P, Kalra MK, Ghoshhajra B. Prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition for cardiac CT angiography in clinical routine: initial results. J. Thoracic Imaging (accepted)
  2. Anupindi S, Perumpillichira J, Jaramillo D, Zalis ME, Israel EJ. Low-dose CT colonography in children: initial experience, technical feasibility, and utility. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35(5):518-524.
  3. Blankstein R, Okada DR, Mamuya WW. Ultra low radiation dose cardiac CT. Int. J. Cardiol. 2009.
  4. Blankstein R, Shah A, Pale R, et al. Radiation dose and image quality of prospective triggering with dual-source cardiac computed tomography. Am. J. Cardiol. 2009;103(8):1168-1173.
  5. Blankstein R, Bolen MA, Pale R, Murphy MK, Shah AB, Bezerra HG, Sarwar A, Rogers IS, Hoffmann U, Abbara S, Cury RC, Brady TJ. Use of 100 kV versus 120 kV in cardiac dual source computed tomography: effect on radiation dose and image quality. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010 Aug 19.  
  6. Boland GWL. The CT dose and utilization controversy: the radiologist's response. J Am Coll Radiol. 2008;5(6):696-698.  
  7. Campbell J, Kalra MK, Rizzo S, Maher MM, Shepard J. Scanning beyond anatomic limits of the thorax in chest CT: findings, radiation dose, and automatic tube current modulation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;185(6):1525-1530.  
  8. Cantwell CP, Setty BN, Holalkere N, et al. Liver lesion detection and characterization in patients with colorectal cancer: a comparison of low radiation dose non-enhanced PET/CT, contrast-enhanced PET/CT, and liver MRI. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2008;32(5):738-744.  
  9. Dalal T, Kalra MK, Rizzo SMR, et al. Metallic prosthesis: technique to avoid increase in CT radiation dose with automatic tube current modulation in a phantom and patients. Radiology. 2005;236(2):671-675.  
  10. Ferencik M, Moselewski F, Ropers D, et al. Quantitative parameters of image quality in multidetector spiral computed tomographic coronary imaging with submillimeter collimation. Am. J. Cardiol. 2003;92(11):1257-1262.  
  11. Halliburton SS, Abbara S. Practical tips and tricks in cardiovascular computed tomography: patient preparation for optimization of cardiovascular CT data acquisition. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2007 Jul;1(1):62-5.
  12. Hamberg LM, Rhea JT, Hunter GJ, Thrall JH. Multi-detector row CT: radiation dose characteristics. Radiology. 2003;226(3):762-772.  
  13. Hausleiter J, Raff GL, Halliburton SS, Abbara S, et. al. SCCT Guidelines on Radiation Doses and Radiation Dose Reducing Strategies in Cardiac CT Imaging. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr.  July 2011.
  14. Hricak H, Brenner DJ, Adelstein SJ, Frush DP, Hall EJ, Howell RW, McCollough CH, Mettler FA, Pearce MS, Suleiman OH, Thrall JH, Wagner LK. Managing radiation use in medical imaging: a multifaceted challenge. Radiology. 2011Mar;258(3):889-905.
  15. Kalra MK, Abbara S, Cury RC, Brady TJ. Interpretation of incidental findings on cardiac CT angiography. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2007;70(2):324-325; author reply 326-328.  
  16. Kalra MK, Brady TJ. Current status and future directions in technical developments of cardiac computed tomography. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2008;2(2):71-80.  
  17. Kalra MK, Dang P, Singh S, Saini S, Shepard JO. In-plane shielding for CT: effect of off-centering, automatic exposure control and shield-to-surface distance. Korean J Radiol. 2009;10(2):156-163.  
  18. Kalra MK, Francis IR. Personalized dose reduction for computed tomography scanning: size matters, so does prior radiation exposures. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2010;8(3):231-232.  
  19. Kalra MK, Maher MM, Blake MA, et al. Detection and characterization of lesions on low-radiation-dose abdominal CT images postprocessed with noise reduction filters. Radiology. 2004;232(3):791-797.  
  20. Kalra MK, Maher MM, D'Souza R, Saini S. Multidetector computed tomography technology: current status and emerging developments. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2004;28 Suppl 1:S2-6.  
  21. Kalra MK, Maher MM, D'Souza RV, et al. Detection of urinary tract stones at low-radiation-dose CT with z-axis automatic tube current modulation: phantom and clinical studies. Radiology. 2005;235(2):523-529.  
  22. Kalra MK, Maher MM, Kamath RS, et al. Sixteen-detector row CT of abdomen and pelvis: study for optimization of Z-axis modulation technique performed in 153 patients. Radiology. 2004;233(1):241-249.  
  23. Kalra MK, Maher MM, Prasad SR, et al. Correlation of patient weight and cross-sectional dimensions with subjective image quality at standard dose abdominal CT. Korean J Radiol. 2003;4(4):234-238.  
  24. Kalra MK, Maher MM, Rizzo S, et al. Radiation exposure from chest CT: issues and strategies. J. Korean Med. Sci. 2004;19(2):159-166.  
  25. Kalra MK, Maher MM, Rizzo S, Saini S. Radiation exposure and projected risks with multidetector-row computed tomography scanning: clinical strategies and technologic developments for dose reduction. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2004;28 Suppl 1:S46-49.  
  26. Kalra MK, Maher MM, Sahani DV, Blake M, Saini S. Current status of multidetector computed tomography urography in imaging of the urinary tract. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2002;31(5):210-221.  
  27. Kalra MK, Maher MM, Sahani DV, et al. Low-dose CT of the abdomen: evaluation of image improvement with use of noise reduction filters pilot study. Radiology. 2003;228(1):251-256.  
  28. Kalra MK, Maher MM, Saini S. Multislice CT: update on radiation and screening. Eur Radiol. 2003;13 Suppl 5:M129-133.  
  29. Kalra MK, Maher MM, Saini S. What is the optimum position of arms for acquiring scout images for whole-body CT with automatic tube current modulation? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003;181(2):596-597.  
  30. Kalra MK, Maher MM, Toth TL, et al. Comparison of Z-axis automatic tube current modulation technique with fixed tube current CT scanning of abdomen and pelvis. Radiology. 2004;232(2):347-353.  
  31. Kalra MK, Maher MM, Toth TL, et al. Radiation from "extra" images acquired with abdominal and/or pelvic CT: effect of automatic tube current modulation. Radiology. 2004;232(2):409-414.  
  32. Kalra MK, Maher MM, Toth TL, et al. Strategies for CT radiation dose optimization. Radiology. 2004;230(3):619-628.  
  33. Kalra MK, Maher MM, Toth TL, et al. Techniques and applications of automatic tube current modulation for CT. Radiology. 2004;233(3):649-657.  
  34. Kalra MK, Naz N, Rizzo SMR, Blake MA. Computed tomography radiation dose optimization: scanning protocols and clinical applications of automatic exposure control. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2005;34(5):171-181.  
  35. Kalra MK, Prasad S, Saini S, et al. Clinical comparison of standard-dose and 50% reduced-dose abdominal CT: effect on image quality. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179(5):1101-1106.  
  36. Kalra MK, Rizzo S, Maher MM, et al. Chest CT performed with z-axis modulation: scanning protocol and radiation dose. Radiology. 2005;237(1):303-308.  
  37. Kalra MK, Rizzo SMR, Novelline RA. Reducing radiation dose in emergency computed tomography with automatic exposure control techniques. Emerg Radiol. 2005;11(5):267-274.  
  38. Kalra MK, Rizzo SMR, Novelline RA. Technologic innovations in computer tomography dose reduction: implications in emergency settings. Emerg Radiol. 2005;11(3):127-128.  
  39. Kalra MK, Singh S, Blake MA. CT of the urinary tract: turning attention to radiation dose. Radiol. Clin. North Am. 2008;46(1):1-9, v.  
  40. Kalra MK, Small WC, Torres WE. A 45-second CT perfusion protocol for rectal cancers may not be adequate to infer vascular permeability--surface area products. Radiology. 2006;238(2):755-756; author reply 757-758.
  41. Kalra MK, Wittram C, Maher MM, et al. Can noise reduction filters improve low-radiation-dose chest CT images? Pilot study. Radiology. 2003;228(1):257-264.  
  42. Kambadakone AR, Prakash P, Hahn PF, Sahani DV. Low-dose CT examinations in Crohn's disease: Impact on image quality, diagnostic performance, and radiation dose. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;195(1):78-88.  
  43. Karsli T, Kalra MK, Self JL, et al. What physicians think about the need for informed consent for communicating the risk of cancer from low-dose radiation. Pediatr Radiol. 2009;39(9):917-925.  
  44. Latchaw RE, Alberts MJ, Lev MH, et. al. Recommendations for imaging of acute ischemic stroke: a scientific statement from
    the American Heart Association. Stroke. 2009 Nov;40(11):3646-78.
  45. Lehman SJ, Abbara S, Cury RC, et al. Significance of cardiac computed tomography incidental findings in acute chest pain. Am. J. Med. 2009;122(6):543-549.  
  46. Li J, Udayasankar UK, Toth TL, et al. Automatic patient centering for MDCT: effect on radiation dose. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188(2):547-552.  
  47. Li J, Udayasankar UK, Toth TL, Small WC, Kalra MK. Application of automatic vertical positioning software to reduce radiation exposure in multidetector row computed tomography of the chest. Invest Radiol. 2008;43(6):447-452.  
  48. Maher MM, Kalra MK, Toth TL, et al. Application of rational practice and technical advances for optimizing radiation dose for chest CT. J Thorac Imaging. 2004;19(1):16-23.  
  49. Mi Sung Kim, Singh S, Halpern E, Saini S, Kalra MK. Relation between patient centering, mean CT numbers and noise in abdominal CT: Influence of anthropomorphic parameters. World Journal of Radiology (WJR accepted).
  50. Mi Sung Kim, Singh S, Kalra MK. Current status of low dose multi-detector CT in the urinary tract. (WJR accepted)
  51. Miller JC, Abbara S, Mamuya WS, Thrall JH, Uppot RN. Dual-source CT for cardiac imaging. J Am Coll Radiol. 2009 Jan;6(1):65-8. Review.
  52. Moloo J, Shapiro MD, Abbara S. Cardiac computed tomography: technique and optimization of protocols. Semin Roentgenol. 2008 Apr;43(2):90-9. Review.
  53. Morrisroe SN, Su RR, Bae KT, et al. Differential renal function estimation using computerized tomography based renal parenchymal volume measurement. J. Urol. 2010;183(6):2289-2293.  
  54. Mullins ME, Lev MH, Bove P, et al. Comparison of image quality between conventional and low-dose nonenhanced head CT. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25(4):533-538.  
  55. Murphy MK, Brady TJ, Nasir K, et al. Appropriateness and utilization of cardiac CT: Implications for development of future criteria. J Nucl Cardiol. 2010.
  56. Pomerantz SR, Harris GJ, Desai HJ, Lev MH. Computed tomography angiography and computed tomography perfusion in ischemic stroke: A step-by-step approach to image acquisition and three-dimensional postprocessing. Semin. Ultrasound CT MR. 2006;27(3):243-270.  
  57. Prakash P, Kalra MK, Ackman JB, et al. Diffuse lung disease: CT of the chest with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique. Radiology. 2010;256(1):261-269.  
  58. Prakash P, Kalra MK, Digumarthy SR Hsieh J, Pien H, Singh S, Gilman MD, Shepard JA. Radiation dose reduction with chest computed tomography using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique: initial experience. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2010;34(1):40-45.  
  59. Prakash P, Kalra MK, Digumarthy SR, Shepard JA. Alterations of anatomic relationships on chest computed tomography as a function of arm position. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2010;34:285-9.
  60. Prakash P, Kalra MK, Gilman MD, Shepard JO, Digumarthy SR. Is weight-based adjustment of automatic exposure control necessary for the reduction of chest CT radiation dose? Korean J Radiol. 2010;11(1):46-53.  
  61. Prakash P, Kalra MK, Kambadakone AK, et al. Reducing abdominal CT radiation dose with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique. Invest Radiol. 2010;45(4):202-210.  
  62. Prasad SR, Wittram C, Shepard J, McLoud T, Rhea J. Standard-dose and 50%-reduced-dose chest CT: comparing the effect on image quality. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179(2):461-465.  
  63. Quentin M, Kröpil P, Steiner S, Lanzman RS, Blondin D, Miese F, Choy G, Abbara S, Scherer A. Prevalence and clinical significance of incidental cardiac findings in non-ECG-gated chest CT scans. Radiologe. 2011 Jan;51(1):59-64. German.
  64. Rehani MM, Prokop M, Tsapaki V, Kalra MK, et al. CT Radiation Dose Reduction while Maintaining Image Quality.  International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Document (IAEA TecDoc) (2004-06), Vienna, Austria
  65. Rizzo S, Kalra M, Schmidt B, et al. Comparison of angular and combined automatic tube current modulation techniques with constant tube current CT of the abdomen and pelvis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186(3):673-679.  
  66. Rizzo SMR, Kalra MK, Maher MM, et al. Do metallic endoprostheses increase radiation dose associated with automatic tube-current modulation in abdominal-pelvic MDCT? A phantom and patient study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184(2):491-496.  
  67. Rizzo SMR, Kalra MK, Schmidt B, et al. CT images of abdomen and pelvis: effect of nonlinear three-dimensional optimized reconstruction algorithm on image quality and lesion characteristics. Radiology. 2005;237(1):309-315.  
  68. Rizzo SMR, Kalra MK, Schmidt B. Automatic exposure control techniques for individual dose adaptation. Radiology. 2005;235(1):335-336; author reply 336.  
  69. Sahani D, Saini S, D'Souza RV, et al. Comparison between low (3:1) and high (6:1) pitch for routine abdominal/pelvic imaging with multislice computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2003;27(2):105-109.  
  70. Sahani DV, Kalva SP, Hahn PF, Saini S. 16-MDCT angiography in living kidney donors at various tube potentials: impact on image quality and radiation dose. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188(1):115-120.  
  71. Sahani DV, Kambadakone AR. Crohn's disease and radiation exposure: it's time we got our act together? Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 2009;15(8):1278-1280.  
  72. Sahani DV, Yaghmai V. Advances in MDCT. Preface. Radiol. Clin. North Am. 2009;47(1):xiii-xiv.  
  73. Salamipour H, Jimenez RM, Brec SL, et al. Multidetector row CT in pediatric musculoskeletal imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35(6):555-564.  
  74. Sangwaiya MJ, Kalra MK, Sharma A, et al. Dual-energy computed tomographic pulmonary angiography: a pilot study to assess the effect on image quality and diagnostic confidence. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2010;34(1):46-51.
  75. Singh S, Kalra MK, Bhangle AS, Saini A, Gervais DA, Westra SJ, Thrall JH. Pediatric CT protocols: Radiation dose reduction with hybrid iterative reconstruction. Radiology (accepted).
  76. Singh S, Kalra MK, Gilman M, Hsieh J, Licato P, Pien H, Do S,  Digumarthy SR, Shepard JO. Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) technique for radiation dose reduction in chest CT:  A pilot study. Radiology. Published online before print March 8, 2011, doi: 10.1148/radiol.11101450.
  77. Singh S, Kalra MK, Hsieh J, Licato P, Do S, Pien H, Blake MA. Comparison of Adaptive Statistical Iterative and Filtered Back Projection Reconstruction Techniques for Abdominal CT. Radiology. 2010 Sep 9. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 20829535.
  78. Singh S, Kalra MK, Moore MA, et al. Dose reduction and compliance with pediatric CT protocols adapted to patient size, clinical indication, and number of prior studies. Radiology. 2009;252(1):200-208.  
  79. Singh S, Kalra MK, Thrall JH, Mahadevappa M. How to reduce CT radiation dose by modifying primary factors? JACR. Accepted.
  80. Singh S, Kalra MK, Thrall JH, Mahadevappa M. Automatic Exposure Control in CT: Applications and Limitations. JACR. Accepted.
  81. Singh S, Kalra MK, Kim MS, Back A, Blake MA. Radiation Dose reduction with application of non linear adaptive filters for abdominal CT. WJR accepted.
  82. Singh S, Kalra MK, Thrall JH, Mahadevappa M. Head CT: techniques of radiation dose optimization. JACR. Accepted.
  83. Scherer A, Choy G, Kröpil P, Lanzman RS, Mödder U, Abbara S. Cardiac pathologies incidentally detected with non-gated chest CT. Rofo. 2009 Dec;181(12):1127-34. Epub 2009 Oct 27. Review. German.
  84. Thrall JH. Radiation exposure: politics and opinion vs science and pragmatism. J Am Coll Radiol. 2009;6(3):133-134.  
  85. Truong QA, Siegel E, Cannon CP. Cardiac CT angiography--radiation dose-how effective are we in reducing radiation dose from cardiac CT angiography? Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2009 Fall;10(4):236-9.
  86. Taylor CM, Blum A, Abbara S. Patient preparation and scanning techniques. Radiol Clin North Am. 2010 Jul;48(4):675-86. Review.
  87. Udayasankar UK, Li J, Baumgarten DA, Small WC, Kalra MK. Acute abdominal pain: value of non-contrast enhanced ultra-low-dose multi-detector row CT as a substitute for abdominal radiographs. Emerg Radiol. 2009;16(1):61-70.  
  88. Walsh CJ, Sapkota BH, Kalra MK, Hanumara NC, Liu B, Shepard JA, Gupta R. Smaller and Deeper Lesions Increase the Number of Acquired Scan Series in Computed Tomography-guided Lung Biopsy. J Thorac Imaging. 2011 Jan 21.
  89. Wesolowski JR, Lev MH. CT: history, technology, and clinical aspects. Semin. Ultrasound CT MR. 2005;26(6):376-379.  
  90. Wintermark M, Lev MH. AJNR Special Collection on CT Radiation Dose in Neuroimaging. published November 5, 2009. http://www.ajnr.org/misc/Podcast.dtl
  91. Wintermark M, Albers GW, Alexandrov AV et. al. Expert consensus meeting on CT, CTA, CTP Acqusition and Post Processing. Acute stroke imaging research roadmap. Stroke. 2008 May;39(5):1621-8.
  92. Wintermark M, Lev MH. FDA investigates the safety of brain perfusion CT. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31(1):2-3. 

Book Chapters

  1. Kalra MK, Saini S. MDCT Scanning: From 15 Hours to Subsecond Scanning.  The Year in Radiology, Special Issue: Advances in MDCT. Edited by Sanjay Saini, Lorenzo Bonomo, Evelyn Teasdale, and Richard D. White. Clinical Publishing, Boca Raton, Fla: CRC, 2005. ISBN 1-904392-17-2.
  2. Kalra MK. Radiation Exposure with MDCT.  MDCT: A practical Approach. Ed. Saini S, Rubin GD, Kalra MK. 1st Edition, Springer Verlag 2006.
  3. Kalra MK, Abbara S. Radiation Dose Consideration with Cardiac CT. Novel Techniques for Imaging the Heart: Cardiac MRI and CT (one of the American Heart Association Clinical Series). Eds: Marcelo Di Carli & Raymond Kwong. Blackwell, Oxford (2007).
  4. Kalra MK. Automatic Exposure Control in CT. Radiation Dose in MDCT. Ed. Gevenois PA, Tack D. Springer Verlag, 2007.
  5. Kalra MK, Toth TL. Importance of Patient Centering in MDCT: Dose and Quality. Radiation Dose in MDCT. Ed. Gevenois PA, Tack D. Springer Verlag, 2007.
  6. Jhamnani R, Kalra MK. Radiation Hormesis. Cancer Imaging: Lung and Breast Carcinomas, Volume 1 (pp 23-26). Ed. Hayat MA. 1st Ed, 2008. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington MA.
  7. Kalra MK. Update on Radiation Dose with CT.  MDCT:  A practical Approach. Ed. Kalra MK, Rubin G, Saini S. 2nd Edition, Springer Veralag 2008.
  8. Kalra MK, Abbara S. Tips for Salvaging a Cardiac CT Examination. MDCT of the Heart. Ed. Joseph Schoepf. Humana Press. 2010.
  9. Kalra MK, Greene M, Brent R. Radiological Imaging in pregnancy. Quality and Safety in Radiology 2010. Editors: Abujadeh H. and Bruno M.
  10. MiSung K, Singh S, Kalra MK. Clinical and Technological Strategies for CT Radiation Dose Reduction. Quality and Safety in Radiology 2011. Editors: Abujadeh H. and Bruno M.
  11. Singh S, Kalra MK. Image filters and CT radiation dose. Tack D, Kalra MK, Gevenois PA (Editors). Radiation dose in adult and Pediatric Multidtector CT. Springer 2012.
  12. Singh S, Kalra MK. CT and Shielding. Tack D, Kalra MK, Gevenois PA (Editors). Radiation dose in adult and Pediatric Multidtector CT. Springer 2012.
  13. Singh S, Kalra MK. Image gallery: Organs and Lesions at different dose levels. Tack D, Kalra MK, Gevenois PA (Editors). Radiation dose in adult and Pediatric Multidtector CT. Springer 2012.


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