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  • Psychology Assessment Center

    The pediatric neuropsychology specialists at Massachusetts General Hospital’s Psychology Assessment Center provide neuropsychological assessments to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological, medical, genetic and developmental disorders.

    For more information, please call: 617-643-3997

  • Pediatric Psychiatry

    The Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at MassGeneral Hospital for Children provides comprehensive evaluation and treatment of children and adolescents with the full spectrum of psychiatric conditions and behavioral or emotional difficulties in both inpatient and outpatient settings.

    Contact us

    For more information, contact the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at: 617-724-5600

Currently Browsing:Psychiatry

  • Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD Program

    Pediatric and Adult Patients

    The mission of the Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD Program at Massachusetts General Hospital is to advance the well-being of children and families afflicted with mental illness through clinical care, education and research to identify, prevent and treat those afflicted with mental illness.

  • Pediatric Psychiatry

    The Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at MassGeneral Hospital for Children provides comprehensive evaluation and treatment of children and adolescents with the full spectrum of psychiatric conditions and behavioral or emotional difficulties in both inpatient and outpatient settings.

    Contact us

    For more information, contact the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at: 617-724-5600

About This Condition

Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children

What is autism spectrum disorder in children?

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a problem that affects a child’s nervous system and growth and development. It usually shows up during a child’s first 3 years of life.

Some children with ASD seem to live in their own world. They are not interested in other children and lack social awareness. A child with ASD focuses on following a routine that may include usual behaviors. A child with the disorder also often has problems communicating with others and may not start speaking as soon as other children. He or she may not want to make eye contact with other people.

ASD can keep a child from developing social skills. This is in part because a child with ASD may not be able to understand facial expressions or emotions in other people. A child with ASD may:

  • Not want to be touched
  • Want to play alone
  • Not want to change routines

A child with ASD may also repeat movements. This might be flapping his or her hands or rocking. He or she may also have unusual attachments to objects. But a child with ASD may also do certain mental tasks very well. For example, the child may be able to count or measure better than other children. Children with ASD may do well in art or music, or be able to remember certain things very well.

What causes ASD in a child?

Researchers don’t know what causes ASD. It may be caused by certain genes. A child with ASD may also have problems with the structure of the brain or with certain chemicals in the brain. Researchers do know that ASD is not caused by what a parent does to raise a child.

Much less commonly, other things that may cause ASD include:

  • Being exposed to toxins in the environment before or after birth
  • Problems during delivery
  • Infections before birth

Which children are at risk for ASD?

The disorder happens much more often in boys than girls. Four to 5 times as many boys as girls have ASD.

Certain gene disorders that run in families can raise a child’s risk for ASD. These include:

  • Fragile-X
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Chromosome problems

Your child may need genetic testing to help find out which problem he or she has. The testing is done by a medical geneticist. This is a healthcare provider with special training in genes and gene problems. He or she can let you know the chances of having another child with the gene problem. For example, PKU carries a 1 in 4 chance of happening in another pregnancy. For tuberous sclerosis, the chances are 1 in 2.

Even when no gene problem is found, you are at a slightly higher chance of having another child with ASD. Researchers think this is because several genes from both parents may act together to cause ASD.

What are the symptoms of ASD in a child?

Each child may have slightly different symptoms. Below are the most common symptoms of ASD.

Social symptoms

  • Has problems making eye contact with others
  • Has problems making friends or interacting with other children

Communication symptoms

  • Does not communicate well with others
  • Starts speaking at a later age than other children or doesn’t speak at all
  • When the child is able to speak, doesn’t use speech in social interactions
  • Repeats words or phrases (echolalia) or repeats parts of dialogue from TV or movies

Behavior symptoms

  • Does repeated movements, such as rocking or flapping fingers or hands
  • May be too sensitive or less sensitive to certain things around him or her, such as lights, sounds, touch, or taste
  • Has rituals
  • Needs routines

The symptoms of ASD may look like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is ASD diagnosed in a child?

No single medical test can diagnose ASD. Healthcare providers use certain guidelines to help diagnose ASD in children before age 2. The guidelines can help diagnose the disorder early. Children diagnosed with ASD early can be treated right away.

The guidelines say that all children should be screened for ASD and other development disorders before age 2. The screening is done at well-child checkups. Children who have symptoms of development or behavior disorders will need to get more testing for ASD.

Healthcare providers look for the following problems during well-child visits before age 2:

  • No babbling, pointing, or gesturing by age 12 months
  • No single words spoken by age 16 months
  • No 2-word phrases by age 24 months, just repeating words or sounds of others
  • Loss of any language or social skills at any age
  • No eye contact at 3 to 4 months

If a child has any of the above problems, the healthcare provider will do more screening. This will help show whether your child has ASD or another developmental disorder. Your child may need to see a healthcare provider with special training to diagnose and treat ASD. Your child may also need these screening tests:

  • Nervous system exam
  • Imaging tests such as CT scan, MRI, or PET scan
  • Mental health tests
  • Genetic tests to look for gene problems that cause ASD or other developmental disorders

How is ASD treated in a child?

Each child with ASD needs his or her own special treatment program. This is because children with ASD can vary a lot in how much help they need. Programs that work best are those that are started as early as possible and involve the parents.

Treatment for ASD includes:

  • Behavior change programs. These programs teach social skills, movement skills, and thinking (cognitive) skills. They can help a child change problem behaviors.
  • Special education programs. These focus on social skills, speech, language, self-care, and job skills.
  • Medicine. Some children need medicine to help treat some of the symptoms of ASD.

Your child and your family may also need to see a mental health provider. This provider can give you parent counseling, social skills training, and one-on-one therapy. This provider can also help you find the treatment programs that are best for your child.

How can I help prevent ASD in my child?

Experts don’t know how to prevent ASD in children. They do know that it is not caused by what a parent does to raise a child.  Spotting and treating ASD early can lessen symptoms and enhance your child’s normal development. It can also improve your child’s quality of life.

How can I help my child live with ASD?

Your child’s primary care provider will play a key role in supporting you and your child. He or she will help you understand treatment and how to care for your child. You play a critical part in your child’s treatment and well-being. Here are things you can do to help your child:

  • Keep all appointments with your child’s healthcare provider.
  • Talk with your child’s healthcare provider about other providers who will be involved in your child’s care. Your child may get care from a team that may include neurologists, speech-language pathologists, occupational and physical therapists, social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrists. Your child’s care team will depend on your child’s needs and how serious the ASD is.
  • Tell others about your child’s ASD. Work with your child’s healthcare provider and schools to develop a treatment plan.
  • Reach out for support from local community services. ASD can be stressful. Being in touch with other parents who have a child ASD may be helpful.

Key points about autism spectrum disorder in children

  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a problem that affects a child’s nervous system and growth and development.
  • A child with ASD often has problems communicating. He or she may have trouble developing social skills.
  • Genes may play a role in ASD.
  • All children should be screened for ASD before age 2.
  • Diagnosis may include imaging and genetic tests.
  • Children with ASD need a special treatment plan. It may include programs that change behavior and teach social skills.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.


  • Making the Hospital Accessible for Individuals with Autism - 12/31/2016, Mass General

    The growing number of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prompted Massachusetts General Hospital to initiate the Autism Care Collaborative (ACC). With the support of the Ruderman Family Foundation, the ACC team set forth to build awareness of the needs of people with autism.

  • At Seat at the Table raises funds for autism - 2/21/2015, Mass General

    A Seat at the Table took place on November 4 with cooking sensation Ina Garten, known to her legions of fans as the Barefoot Contessa. The event offered an intimate dining experience at Boston's Mandarin Oriental, and benefited Massachusetts General Hospital and MassGeneral Hospital for Children's Lurie Center for Autism.

  • Help us discover new ways to treat the symptoms of autism - 2/21/2015, Research

    The Lurie Center's Research Program offers children, adolescents and adults a unique opportunity to participate in groundbreaking research studies. Learn how you can participate in an exciting study that is exploring a new autism treatment. This new treatment could potentially treat autism's core symptoms, including impaired communication and social skills.

  • Buie Featured in Video Series for Autism Speaks - 1/26/2015, Mass General

    Timothy Buie, MD, director of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition at the Lurie Center for Autism, discusses various topics surrounding gastroenterology issues and autism in a video series for Autism Speaks.

  • Decompressing After School: Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder - 9/8/2014, Mass General

    Many children and teens on the autism spectrum expend a lot of energy to “hold it together” just to make it through the school day. When they get home from school they could benefit from a little time to decompress. Here are strategies parents can use to help facilitate this process.

  • Determined to succeed - 8/29/2014, Mass General

    The Aspire Adult Internship Program at the Lurie Center for Autism helps adults gain valuable experience in the work world.

  • No Connection Between School Shooting and Asperger's Syndrome - 12/17/2012, Mass General

    In a blog post shared here, D. Scott McLeod, PhD, a MassGeneral Hospital for Children psychologist and executive director of Aspire Program, says persons with ASD are no more likely to commit a violent act than persons not on the autism spectrum.

  • McDougle named inaugural Nancy Lurie Marks Professor - 5/11/2012, Mass General

    To advance understanding and treatment of autism, Nancy Lurie Marks and the Nancy Lurie Marks Family Foundation have established the Nancy Lurie Marks Professorship in the Field of Autism at Harvard Medical School (HMS). The chair’s first incumbent is Christopher McDougle, MD, who joined the MGH in October as the inaugural director of the Lurie Center for Autism.

  • Improving care for patients with autism - 4/1/2011, Mass General

    MGH Hotline 4.1.11 April is Autism Awareness Month, and at MassGeneral Hospital for Children (MGHfC), a team led by Sarabeth Broder-Fingert, MD, a second-year resident in Pediatrics, is working to improve the inpatient experience for patients with autism and their families.

  • Is There a Link between Autism and the Gut? - 1/19/2010, Mass General

    Autism spectrum disorders and gastrointestinal woes: A discussion with Dr. Timothy Buie, pediatric gastroenterologist at MassGeneral Hospital for Children.

  • A generous gift - 8/28/2009, Mass General

    MGH Hotline 08.28.09 Many associate autism with children, but the complex disorder is a lifelong condition affecting a growing population of adults.

  • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex - 7/21/2009, Mass General

    The Carol and James Herscot Center for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) at Massachusetts General Hospital and MassGeneral Hospital for Children is using genetic research to better understand TSC and other diseases like cancer, autism and obesity.


  • Photo of Dr. Lisa Nowinski

    Lisa Nowinski, PhD

    Dr. Lisa Nowinski talks about her work as a neuropsychologist at the Lurie Center for Autism.

  • Photo of Ann Neumeyer, MD

    Ann Neumeyer, MD

    Dr. Ann Neumeyer, the medical director at the Lurie Center for Autism, talks about her work as a neurologist.

  • Photo of Gretchen Timmel, MEd

    Gretchen Timmel, MEd

    Gretchen Timmel works with adults and children at the Lurie Center for Autism.

  • Photo of Christopher McDougle, MD

    Christopher McDougle, MD

    Dr. Christopher McDougle, the director of the Lurie Center for Autism, talks about his work as a psychiatrist.

  • ASPIRE Program 2012

    ASPIRE Program 2012

    Hear from program administrators and participants about the ASPIRE program which benefits children and young adults with autism and other related disorders.