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  • Pediatric Cystic Fibrosis Center

    The Joey O'Donnell Cystic Fibrosis Center at MassGeneral Hospital for Children is committed to providing first-class, individualized care for each patient with cystic fibrosis.

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    The Massachusetts General Hospital Adult Cystic Fibrosis Program is staffed by world-class specialists who provide outstanding, comprehensive care to adults diagnosed with this uncommon and complex disease.

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About This Condition

Cystic Fibrosis

What is cystic fibrosis?

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited life-threatening disease that affects many organs. It causes changes in the electrolyte transport system. The body's cells then absorb too much sodium and water. People with CF have problems with the glands that make sweat and mucus. Symptoms start in childhood. On average, people with CF live into their mid to late 30s.

CF affects several organ systems in children and young adults, including:  

  • Respiratory system

  • Digestive system

  • Reproductive system

Some people can carry the CF gene without being affected by the disease. They often don't know that they are carriers.

How does CF affect the respiratory system?

With CF there is an abnormal electrolyte transport system. This causes the cells in the respiratory system, especially the lungs, to absorb too much sodium and water. Then the normal thin secretions in the lungs become very thick and hard to move. These thick secretions raise the risk for frequent respiratory infections.

Respiratory infections that keep coming back lead to more damage in the lungs. Over time this causes death of the cells in the lungs.

Because of the high rate of infection in the lower respiratory tract, people with CF may develop a chronic cough and blood in the sputum. They often even have a collapsed lung. The cough is often worse in the morning or after activity.

People with CF also have upper respiratory tract symptoms. Some have nasal polyps that need surgery to be removed. Nasal polyps are small bumps of tissue from the lining of the nose. They can block and irritate the nasal cavity. People with CF also have higher rates of sinus infections.

How does cystic fibrosis affect the digestive system?

CF mainly affects the pancreas. The pancreas secretes substances that aid digestion and help control blood sugar levels.

The secretions from the pancreas also become thick and can clog the ducts of the pancreas. This may cause a decrease in the secretion of enzymes from the pancreas that normally help digest food. A person with CF has trouble absorbing proteins, fats, and vitamins A, D, E, and K.

The problems with the pancreas can get so severe that some of the cells in the pancreas die. Over time, this may lead to glucose intolerance. It may also lead to cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD). This is a unique type of insulin-dependent diabetes.

Some CF symptoms may be from its effect on the digestive tract. These include:

  • Bulky, greasy stools

  • The lower end of the bowel comes out of the anus (rectal prolapse)

  • Delayed puberty

  • Fat in the stools

  • Stomach pain

  • Bloody diarrhea

The liver may also be affected. A small number of people may develop liver disease. Symptoms of liver disease include:

  • Enlarged liver

  • Swollen belly

  • Yellow color to the skin (jaundice)

  • Vomiting blood

How does CF affect the reproductive system?

Most males with CF have blockage of the sperm canal. This is called congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD). This results from the thick secretions clogging the vas deferens and keeping them from developing correctly. It causes infertility because sperm can't travel out of the body. There are some newer methods that allow men with cystic fibrosis to have children. Discuss these with your healthcare provider. Women also have an increase in thick cervical mucus that may lead to a decrease in fertility. But many women with CF are able to have children.

What causes cystic fibrosis?

CF is a genetic disease. This means that CF is inherited.

Changes (mutations) in a gene called the CFTR (cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator) gene cause CF. The CFTR mutations cause changes in the body’s electrolyte transport system. Electrolytes are substances in blood that are vital to cell function. The main result of these transport system changes is seen in the body secretions, such as mucus and sweat.

The CFTR gene is quite large and complex. There are many different mutations in this gene that have been linked to CF.

A person will be born with CF only if 2 CF genes are inherited–1 from the mother and 1 from the father.

Who is at risk for cystic fibrosis?

Cystic fibrosis is inherited. A person with CF had both parents pass the changed gene to them. The birth of a child with CF is often a total surprise to a family. Most of the time there is no family history of CF.

What are the symptoms of cystic fibrosis?

All U.S. states require that newborns be tested for CF. This means that parents can know if their baby has the disease. They can take precautions and watch for early signs of problems.

Symptoms can be different for each person. The severity of symptoms can vary, too. Symptoms may include:

  • Thick mucus that clogs certain organs such as the lungs, pancreas, and intestines. This may cause malnutrition, poor growth, frequent respiratory infections, breathing problems, and ongoing (chronic) lung disease.

Many other health problems can point to cystic fibrosis, as well. These include:

  • Sinusitis

  • Nasal polyps

  • Clubbed fingers and toes. This means thickened fingertips and toes because of less oxygen in the blood.

  • Collapsed lung, often due to intense coughing

  • Coughing up blood

  • Enlargement of the right side of the heart due to increased pressure in the lungs (Cor pulmonale)

  • Belly pain

  • Too much gas in the intestines

  • The lower end of the bowel comes out of the anus (rectal prolapse)

  • Liver disease

  • Diabetes

  • Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) that causes severe pain in the belly

  • Gallstones

  • Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) in males. This causes blockages of the sperm canal.

Babies born with CF often show symptoms by age 2. But some children may not show symptoms until later in life. The following symptoms may mean a child has CF. Babies with these signs may have more testing for CF:

  • Diarrhea that does not go away

  • Bad-smelling stools

  • Greasy stools

  • Frequent wheezing

  • Frequent pneumonia or other lung infections

  • Persistent cough

  • Skin that tastes like salt

  • Poor growth despite having a good appetite

The symptoms of CF may seem like other conditions or health problems. See a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is cystic fibrosis diagnosed?

Most cases of cystic fibrosis are found during newborn screening. Babies will have a full health history and physical exam. Tests for CF include a sweat test to measure the amount of salt (sodium chloride) present. Higher than normal amounts of sodium chloride suggest CF. Other tests depend on which body system is affected. These tests may include:

  • Chest X-rays, ultrasound, and CT scans

  • Blood tests

  • Lung function tests

  • Sputum cultures

  • Stool tests

For babies who don't make enough sweat, blood tests may be used.

How is cystic fibrosis treated?

There is no cure for CF. Goals of treatment are to ease symptoms, prevent and treat complications, and slow the progress of the disease.

Treatment generally focuses on the following 2 areas.

Managing lung problems

This may include:

  • Physical therapy

  • Regular exercises to loosen mucus, stimulate coughing, and improve overall physical condition

  • Medicines to thin mucus and help breathing

  • Antibiotics to treat infections

  • Anti-inflammatory medicines

Managing digestive problems

This may include:

  • A healthy diet that's high in calories

  • Pancreatic enzymes to aid digestion

  • Vitamin supplements

  • Treatments for intestinal blockages

Lung transplant may be a choice for people with end-stage lung disease. The type of transplant done is often a heart-lung transplant or a double lung transplant. Not everyone is a candidate for a lung transplant. Discuss this with your healthcare provider.

What are possible complications of cystic fibrosis?

CF has some serious complications, including:

  • Lung infections and other serious lung problems that don't go away or that come back

  • Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) that doesn't go away or that comes back

  • Cirrhosis or liver disease

  • Vitamin deficiencies

  • The child does not grow and develop as they should (failure to thrive)

  • Infertility in males

  • Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD)

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). With this disease, stomach contents rise up into the esophagus and can cause serious damage.

Organ transplant may be needed for people with end-stage disease.

Can cystic fibrosis be prevented?

Cystic fibrosis is caused by an inherited gene change (mutation). Testing for the CF gene is recommended for anyone who has a family member with the disease. Or for someone whose partner is a known carrier of CF or affected with CF.

Testing for the CF gene can be done from a small blood sample. Or it can be done from a cheek swab. This is a brush rubbed against the inside of your cheek to get cells for testing. Labs generally test for the most common CF gene mutations.

There are many people with CF whose mutations have not been identified. Experts have not discovered all of the genetic errors that cause CF. This means that a person can still be a CF carrier even if no mutations were found by testing.

There are limits to CF testing. But if both parents have the CF gene, they have some choices:

  • Don't get pregnancy

  • Choose prenatal diagnosis. This means the baby can be checked for CF at 10 to 12 weeks and 15 to 20 weeks during pregnancy.

  • End a pregnancy

  • Get ready to have a child with CF

  • Get early treatment for a child with CF

Living with cystic fibrosis

  • In addition to routine vaccines, regular flu vaccines, the pneumonia vaccine, and other vaccines are important to help reduce the chance for infection.

  • You may need to take inhaled antibiotics for the long term to prevent lung infections.

  • You may need medicines to help with digestion.

  • Your healthcare provider may advise vitamin and mineral supplements.

  • The physical, emotional, and financial stress that cystic fibrosis places on a family are enormous. Ask your healthcare provider for resources to help support the family system and manage the disease. Online and in-person support groups and peer support groups for the child with CF can also be very helpful.

Key points about cystic fibrosis

  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited life-threatening disease that affects many organs. It causes changes in the electrolyte transport system. This causes cells to absorb too much sodium and water.

  • People with CF have problems in the glands that produce sweat and mucus.

  • All U.S. states require that newborns be tested for CF. This is how most cases are diagnosed.

  • CF causes thick mucus that clogs certain organs such as the lungs, pancreas, and intestines. This may cause malnutrition, poor growth, frequent respiratory infections, breathing problems, and chronic lung disease.

  • There is no cure for CF. Goals of treatment are to ease symptoms, prevent and treat complications, and slow the progress of the disease.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.

  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.

  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.

  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.

  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.

  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.

  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.

  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.

  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.

  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.

Clinical Trials

The following related clinical trials and research studies are currently seeking participants at Massachusetts General Hospital. Search for clinical trials and studies in another area of interest.


  • A marathon run in honor of his mom and Marathon motivation - 3/22/2019, Mass General

    Daniel Gratzer is no stranger to the Boston Marathon. This will be his third year running for the Mass General Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Team. This marathon, however, will be extra special for him. He’ll also be running in memory of his mother, Joanne M. Gratzer, who died from cancer in August 2018.

  • Marathoner with a message: You can do anything - 3/27/2009, Mass General

    Running the 26-mile Boston marathon is not easy for even conditioned runners. For marathoner Mark Buschle of Fort Thomas, Ky., finishing the race will be a particularly meaningful accomplishment.