3d printer

The Laboratory for Therapeutic 3D Bioprinting

At The Laboratory for Therapeutic 3D Bioprinting at Massachusetts General Hospital, we bioprint live micro-tissues that are comparable to human tissues for therapeutic purposes including tissue regeneration, organ regeneration and anticancer therapy.


Tissue and organ injury or dysfunction is a feature of many diseases. Cell therapy has been used to treat some of these diseases. Some cell therapeutics are currently approved for use by the FDA, while others are in clinical trial. A roadblock for many of these therapies is that these cells often have suboptimal function and viability when delivered in suspension because they lose their micro-environment. Tissue engineering approaches can improve cell function by combining cells, scaffold and biomolecules together to recreate a functional 3-dimensional tissue.

Bioprinting is an emerging technology that can spatially control the construction process of an engineered tissue.

While most current 3D bioprinting technologies focus on the anatomical shape of tissues, The Laboratory for Therapeutic 3D Bioprinting at Mass General focuses on controlling the architecture of tissues at the microscopic level. Our mission is to develop submillimeter-sized micro-tissues with specific morphology, biochemical and biomechanical functions that are comparable to human tissues using our patent-protected 3D bioprinter. We can deliver these tissues to an injured site in the body in a minimally invasive manner, where they self-assemble into macro-sized tissues to repair the injured tissue or organ.

Our lab is also developing a novel approach to personalized cancer care. Using our proprietary 3D printer, we can reproduce a patient’s tumor using the patient’s own cancer cells, cancer-related cells and matrix. We can test these tumors using high-throughput technology against individual or combinations of clinically available chemotherapeutic agents. The results may help oncologists make better informed treatment decisions.

Our 3D bioprinted micro-tissues can be used in the lab for:

  • Studying tissue and organ regeneration
  • Exploring mechanisms of diseases
  • Drug sensitivity testing
  • Drug development

We are developing broad collaborations with various stakeholders to investigate other potential avenues of investigation and treatment.

Team Members

Principal Investigators

Brian Grottkau, MD, Chief, Children's Orthopaedics
Yonggang Pang, MD, PhD, Co-director, The Laboratory for Therapeutic 3D Bioprinting

Laboratory Manager

Zhixin(Cindy) Hui, MS

Laboratory Members

Andrew Grottkau
Cristina Cheng
Hamdi Sukkarieh, MD
Manda Wang

Software Advisory Members

Lingfeng Shen, PhD
Mingqiao Peng, MS

Clinician Scientists

Gleeson Rebello, MD
Saechin Kim, MD, PhD

Administrative Manager

Jennifer Garrick


Eric Berkson, MD
Joseph Vacanti, MD
Soldano Ferrone, MD, PhD
Supriya k Saha, MD, PhD
Xi Ren, PhD

Former lab Members

Chuan Ye, MD, PhD
Craig Neveille, PhD
Dongyang Ma, MD, PhD
Jing Yang, PhD
Yoyo Yao, DDS
Yufeng Lin, DDS

Research Projects

Articular cartilage regeneration using bioprinted micro-cartilage

Osteoarthritis and articular cartilage lesions affect tens of millions of Americans each year and are the leading cause of disability in the US. Articular cartilage does not have the capacity to heal on its own and current treatment options for articular cartilage lesions have varied drawbacks. Our laboratory has successfully bioprinted micro-articular cartilage using our innovative 3D bioprinting system and implanted the cartilage into defects through a minimally invasive approach.

Our micro-articular cartilage tissue has been shown to completely cure large articular cartilage defects that approximate those clinically observed in humans. Our bioprinted micro-articular-cartilage demonstrates standard morphology and biochemical, biomechanical and molecular profiles that are comparable to native articular cartilage. Our micro-cartilage can be implanted arthroscopically and starts to self-assemble hours after implantation. The cartilage then continues to grow and mature in vivo.

The implanted micro-cartilage also effectively incorporates with the surrounding native cartilage and subchondral bone and remains in place even in the presence of axial, rotatory and shear forces. Histology and immunohistology results demonstrate good integration of the bioprinted cartilage into the surrounding cartilage and subchondral bone.

We aim to begin clinical trials within 2 years.

Bioprinting micro-tumor tissues for personalized cancer therapy

25 percent of all deaths in the US resulted from cancer in 2014. Cancer therapy is transitioning to precision medicine, which aims to identify the best treatment regimen for each individual patient. Gene sequencing and functional drug testing are two approaches currently being utilized for precision medicine. Unfortunately, there are two major limitations to gene sequencing for drug sensitivity prediction. First, it is an indirect approach because the drug response prediction is based upon the drug response of other patients with the same mutation. Second, the correlation between the mutations and drug sensitivity are largely unknown and there are a limited number of biomarkers that can be used to predict the drug sensitivity.

Functional drug testing is a more direct approach that is performed to assess the sensitivity of available drugs against an individual patient’s own cancer cells. Currently, 2-dimensional and simple 3-dimensional culture models are being utilized and they are often unable to recreate the tumor microenvironment, which leads to poor predictions of in vivo drug responses. A PDX mouse model take a long time to generate than is clinically advisable for the initiation of definitive therapy. Usually, not enough animals are generated to be used for drug screening.  Additionally, the mouse environment often changes the genotype and phenotype of the implanted xenograft, which makes it less useful for drug sensitivity testing.  It is critical to have a reliable way to predict patient response to medications to select the best treatment plan.

Utilizes our 3D micro-tissue bioprinting technology, we have developed 3D micro-cancer models that recreate the tumor micro-environment (including cellular and extracellular matrices). Our bioprinted micro-cancer models have the following advantages over existing models:

  1. Recreated cellular components including primary cancer cells, cancer associated fibroblasts and microvascular networks
  2. Recreated extracellular matrix
  3. Recreated chemical micro-environment including hypoxia gradient
  4. Recreated physical barrier micro-environment

We have found that our 3D bioprinted tumors demonstrate the following characteristics: High viability during the relatively long-term culture, morphology comparable to the native tumors, similar proliferation patterns to in vivo tumors, invasive behavior mimicking native tumors, pro-angiogenesis behavior, and more drug resistance. When grafting, the rate and degree of tumorigenicity were improved compared to conventional grafting methods.

Our 3D bioprinted tumor models provide a versatile platform for cancer biology study, cancer drug development and selecting specific drug based on the tumor’s sensitivity for an individual patient.

3D bioprinting vascularized micro liver tissue for live regeneration and drug metabolism study

Liver disease is the twelfth most frequent cause of death for people of all ages and fourth most frequent for the middle-aged in the US. Over 15,000 people are on the liver transplantation waiting list. An average of 1,500 people die each year while waiting for a liver transplant. To overcome the liver donor shortage, great efforts have been made on hepatocyte transplantation to treat liver damage, which is less invasive than orthotopic liver transplantation. However, hepatocyte transplantation faces the challenges as all cell transplantation therapies--low survival rates and impaired functions.

Our lab bioprints micro liver tissues that are delivered to the location of the damaged liver through a minimally invasive approach. Because hepatocytes consume much more oxygen than other types of cells, vascularizing an engineered tissue is important. We have successfully bioprinted vascularized micro liver tissues, which significantly improved their viability and function. The bioprinted micro liver can also be applied to drug metabolism studies, which are critical in drug development.

Engineering anatomically shaped bone using 3D printing

Anatomically shaped scaffolds are critical in generating implantable engineered tissue. Solvent casting/particulate leaching is a widely-used technique to generate porous scaffolds. However, generating anatomically shaped casting molds is challenging because of the manufacturing limitations of conventional molding materials such as ceramic and Teflon. Additionally, solvent and salt removal takes days.

To solve these problems, our lab has developed a novel technique utilizing 3D printing of the mold with rapid removal of the solvent and particulates by perfusion. We utilize clinical CT images of a human femur to generate a 3D digital model. The model has identical geometry to the human femur with add-on ports for solvent casting and perfusion. The anatomically shaped mold was 3D printed using a solvent-resistant and water-soluble polymer. A bone inductive scaffold was developed with hydroxyapatite (HA) and PCL- or PLA-polymer using the solvent casting/particulate leaching method in the printed mold.

Compared with conventional methods, this perfusion technique completely removed the solvent by ethanol perfusion within several minutes and removed particulates by water perfusion in a 3D printed none-water soluble mold within a few hours. The scaffold shows high porosity and interconnectivity. The scaffold also shows good biocompatibility as evidenced by seeding osteoblastic cells, which demonstrated good viability, proliferative activity and osteogenic differentiation. Our technology is a versatile tool to efficiently create patient-specific bone grafts. It is also applicable for many other biomaterials and many other tissues.

3D bioprinting angiogenesis model

Angiogenesis is fundamental to organ formation, wound healing, tumor growth, invasion and metastatic dissemination. 3D angiogenesis models better mimic in vivo conditions than 2D models. However, conventional angiogenesis models don’t represent the complexity in the micro environment during angiogenesis.

Using our 3D bioprinting technology, we have successfully generated complex 3D angiogenesis models, which better resemble the in vivo conditions. In addition, the customized printing process enable the 3D model to facilitate high-throughput screening with multiple conditions.

Collective cell migration model generated by 3D printing

Collective cell migration(cells migrate as a group) is fundamental in many biological and pathological processes. However, existing methods have drawbacks such as cell damage, substrate surface alteration, limitation in media exchange and solvent interference. The superhydrophobic surface has a water contact angle of greater than 150 degrees.

Our lab has have successfully developed a patterned superhydrophobic array for studying collective cell migration in high-throughput. The array was developed on a rectangular single-well cell culture plate consisting of hydrophilic flat microwells separated by the superhydrophobic surface. The main manufacturing process includes patterning discrete protective masks to the substrate using 3D printing, robotic spray coating of silica nanoparticles, robotic mask removal, robotic mini silicone blocker patterning, automatic cell seeding and liquid handling.

Compared with a standard 96 well plate, our system increases the throughput by 2.25 fold and non-destructively generates a cell-free area in each well. Our system also demonstrates high-efficiency in liquid handling compared with conventional microwell plates. The superhydrophobic surface had no negative impact on cell viability. We studied the collective migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and cancer cells using assays of endpoint quantification, dynamics cell tracking and migration quantification following varied drug treatments. This system provides a versatile platform to study collective cell migration in high-throughput for a broad range of applications.

Research Positions

The Laboratory for Therapeutic 3D Bioprinting teams with individuals with diverse backgrounds and establishes collaborations with groups with diverse research interests. We are looking for highly motivated and dedicated individuals who are passionate about advancing 3D bioprinting technology for therapeutic purposes. We welcome candidates with medical, biological, pharmaceutical and engineering backgrounds.

Interested individuals seeking positions as a research fellows, international exchange scholars/students or student internships, should forward the statement of interest, CV and three references to Dr. Yonggang Pang.


  1. Yonggang Pang, Jing Yang, Zhixin Hui, Brian E. Grottkau. Robotic Patterning a Superhydrophobic Surface for Collective Cell Migration Screening. Tissue Engineering Part C, 2018 (Accepted)
  2. L. Yang, B. Grottkau, Z. He, C. Ye. Three-dimensional printing technology and materials for treatment of elbow fractures. Int Orthop. 2017, pp. 2381-2387.
  3. X. Luo, K.M. Kulig, E.B. Finkelstein, M.F. Nicholson, X.H. Liu, S.M. Goldman, J.P. Vacanti, B.E. Grottkau, I. Pomerantseva, C.A. Sundback, C.M. Neville. In vitro evaluation of decellularized ECM-derived surgical scaffold biomaterials. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 105 (2017) 585-593.
  4. C. Zhou, B.E. Grottkau, S. Zou. Regulators of Stem Cells Proliferation in Tissue Regeneration. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 11 (2016) 177-187.
  5. BE Grottkau, Z Hui, SK Saha, NM Bardeesy, Y Pang. 3d Bioprinting Cancer Tissues for Drug Development and Personalized Cancer Therapy. Tissue Engineering Part A. 22 (2016) S134-S135.
  6. Z Hui, D Ma, Y Pang, B Grottkau. Bioprint Injectable MSC Microtissues Repairing Cartilage Defects. Tissue Engineering Part A. 22 (2016) S83-S83.
  7. D Ma, Y Yao, Z Hui, Y Pang, BE Grottkau. 3D Bioprinting Malignant Tumor Microtissues for Cancer Research. TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A. 21 (2016) S214-S214.
  8. Y. Pang, O. Tsigkou, J.A. Spencer, C.P. Lin, C. Neville, B. Grottkau. Analyzing Structure and Function of Vascularization in Engineered Bone Tissue by Video-Rate Intravital Microscopy and 3D Image Processing. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 21 (2015) 1025-1031.
  9. S. Narayanan, R. Shailam, B.E. Grottkau, K. Nimkin. Fishtail deformity--a delayed complication of distal humeral fractures in children. Pediatr Radiol. 45 (2015) 814-819.
  10. N. Liu, K.B. Wood, J.H. Schwab, T.D. Cha, R.D. Puhkan, P.M. Osler, B.E. Grottkau. Comparison of Intrawound Vancomycin Utility in Posterior Instrumented Spine Surgeries Between Patients with Tumor and Nontumor Patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 40 (2015) 1586-1592.
  11. P. Li, S. Boronat, A.L. Geffrey, I. Barber, B.E. Grottkau, E.A. Thiele. Rib and vertebral bone fibrous dysplasia in a child with tuberous sclerosis complex. Am J Med Genet A. 167A (2015) 2755-2757.
  12. Y Yao, Z Hui, D Ma, BE Grottkau, Y Pang. A Novel 3D Bioprinted Angiogenesis System for High-throughput Screening. TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A. 21 (2015) S321-S321.
  13. BE Grottkau, Y Pang. Stem Cell Transplantation into Epiphysis of Piglet Perthes' Model Promoted Restoration of Femoral Head Sphericity. TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A. 21 (2015) S37-S37.
  14. J.V. Coumans, J.B. Neal, B.E. Grottkau, B.V. Nahed, J.H. Shin, B.P. Walcott. Giant thoracic osteophyte: a distinct clinical entity. J Clin Neurosci. 21 (2014) 1599-1602.
  15. Y Pang, Y Yao, B Grottkau. Rapid 3D Printing Anatomically Shaped Bone Scaffolds Using Novel Molding and Perfusion Techniques. TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A. 20 (2014) S13-S13.
  16. C. Zhou, X. Cai, B.E. Grottkau, Y. Lin. BMP4 promotes vascularization of human adipose stromal cells and endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Cell Prolif. 46 (2013) 695-704.
  17. A.A. Ucuzian, D.V. Bufalino, Y. Pang, H.P. Greisler. Angiogenic endothelial cell invasion into fibrin is stimulated by proliferating smooth muscle cells. Microvasc Res. 90 (2013) 40-47.
  18. B.E. Grottkau, X. Yang, L. Zhang, L. Ye, Y. Lin. Comparison of Effects of Mechanical Stretching on Osteogenic Potential of ASCs and BMSCs. Bone Res. 1 (2013) 282-290.
  19. B.E. Grottkau, Y. Lin. Osteogenesis of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells. Bone Res. 1 (2013) 133-145.
  20. B.E. Grottkau, X. Cai, J. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Lin. Polymeric nanoparticles for a drug delivery system. Curr Drug Metab. 14 (2013) 840-846.
  21. E.S. Hart, B.E. Grottkau. Isolated macrodactyly of the foot: diagnosis and treatment. Orthop Nurs. 31 (2012) 212-215; quiz 216-217.
  22. P.G. Passias, S. Wang, M. Kozanek, Q. Xia, W. Li, B. Grottkau, K.B. Wood, G. Li. Segmental lumbar rotation in patients with discogenic low back pain during functional weight-bearing activities. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 93 (2011) 29-37.
  23. Y. Pang, X. Wang, D. Lee, H.P. Greisler. Dynamic quantitative visualization of single cell alignment and migration and matrix remodeling in 3-D collagen hydrogels under mechanical force. Biomaterials. 32 (2011) 3776-3783.
  24. D.R. Lebl, C.M. Bono, U.S. Metkar, B.E. Grottkau, K.B. Wood. Bioabsorbable anterior cervical plate fixation for single-level degenerative disorders: early clinical and radiographic experience. Spine J. 11 (2011) 1002-1008.
  25. E.S. Hart, A. Turner, M. Albright, B.E. Grottkau. Common pediatric elbow fractures. Orthop Nurs. 30 (2011) 11-17; quiz 18-19.
  26. A.A. Gassman, T. Kuprys, A.A. Ucuzian, E. Brey, A. Matsumura, Y. Pang, J. Larson, H.P. Greisler. Three-dimensional 10% cyclic strain reduces bovine aortic endothelial cell angiogenic sprout length and augments tubulogenesis in tubular fibrin hydrogels. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 5 (2011) 375-383.
  27. C.M. El Saleeby, B.E. Grottkau, A.M. Friedmann, S.J. Westra, A.R. Sohani. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 4-2011. A 4-year-old boy with back pain and hypercalcemia. N Engl J Med. 364 (2011) 552-562.
  28. X. Cai, Y. Zhang, X. Yang, B.E. Grottkau, Y. Lin. Uniaxial cyclic tensile stretch inhibits osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 5 (2011) 347-353.
  29. X. Cai, Y. Lin, P.V. Hauschka, B.E. Grottkau. Adipose stem cells originate from perivascular cells. Biol Cell. 103 (2011) 435-447.
  30. S.E. Beck, J.H. Schwab, D.I. Rosenthal, A.E. Rosenberg, B.E. Grottkau. Metachronous osteoid osteoma of the tibia and the T7 vertebral body: a case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 93 (2011) e73.
  31. A.A. Ucuzian, L.P. Brewster, A.T. East, Y. Pang, A.A. Gassman, H.P. Greisler. Characterization of the chemotactic and mitogenic response of SMCs to PDGF-BB and FGF-2 in fibrin hydrogels. J Biomed Mater Res A. 94 (2010) 988-996.
  32. Y. Pang, X. Wang, A.A. Ucuzian, E.M. Brey, W.H. Burgess, K.J. Jones, T.D. Alexander, H.P. Greisler. Local delivery of a collagen-binding FGF-1 chimera to smooth muscle cells in collagen scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 31 (2010) 878-885.
  33. Y. Pang, H.P. Greisler. Using a type 1 collagen-based system to understand cell-scaffold interactions and to deliver chimeric collagen-binding growth factors for vascular tissue engineering. J Investig Med. 58 (2010) 845-848.
  34. Y. Huang, X. Yang, Y. Wu, W. Jing, X. Cai, W. Tang, L. Liu, Y. Liu, B.E. Grottkau, Y. Lin. Gamma-secretase inhibitor induces adipogenesis of adipose-derived stem cells by regulation of Notch and PPAR-gamma. Cell Prolif. 43 (2010) 147-156.
  35. E.S. Hart, G. Merlin, J. Harisiades, B.E. Grottkau. Scheuermann's thoracic kyphosis in the adolescent patient. Orthop Nurs. 29 (2010) 365-371; quiz 372-363.
  36. B.E. Grottkau, G. Rebello, G. Merlin, J.M. Winograd. Coaptive film versus subcuticular suture: comparing skin closure time after posterior spinal instrumented fusion in pediatric patients with spinal deformity. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 35 (2010) 2027-2029.
  37. B.E. Grottkau, P.P. Purudappa, Y.F. Lin. Multilineage differentiation of dental pulp stem cells from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice. Int J Oral Sci. 2 (2010) 21-27.
  38. A Gassman, T Kuprys, A Ucuzian, E Brey, A Matsumura, Y Pang, J Larsen. Ten Percent Volumetric Cyclic Strain Reduces Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cell Sprout Length and Augments Tubulogenesis in Tubular Fibrin Hydrogels. Journal of Surgical Research. 158 (2) (2010) 222-223.
  39. Q. Xia, S. Wang, P.G. Passias, M. Kozanek, G. Li, B.E. Grottkau, K.B. Wood, G. Li. In vivo range of motion of the lumbar spinous processes. Eur Spine J. 18 (2009) 1355-1362.
  40. E.G. Shannon, E.S. Hart, B.E. Grottkau. Clavicle fractures in children: the essentials. Orthop Nurs. 28 (2009) 210-214; quiz 215-216.
  41. G. Rebello, R. Parikh, B. Grottkau. Coaptive film versus subcuticular suture: comparing skin closure time following identical, single-session, bilateral limb surgery in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 29 (2009) 626-628.
  42. Y. Pang, A.A. Ucuzian, A. Matsumura, E.M. Brey, A.A. Gassman, V.A. Husak, H.P. Greisler. The temporal and spatial dynamics of microscale collagen scaffold remodeling by smooth muscle cells. Biomaterials. 30 (2009) 2023-2031.
  43. E.S. Hart, U.S. Metkar, G.N. Rebello, B.E. Grottkau. Femoroacetabular impingement in adolescents and young adults. Orthop Nurs. 28 (2009) 117-124; quiz 125-116.
  44. E.S. Hart, B.E. Grottkau. Intraoperative neuromonitoring in pediatric spinal deformity surgery. Orthop Nurs. 28 (2009) 286-292.
  45. B.E. Grottkau, X.R. Chen, C.C. Friedrich, X.M. Yang, W. Jing, Y. Wu, X.X. Cai, Y.R. Liu, Y.D. Huang, Y.F. Lin. DAPT enhances the apoptosis of human tongue carcinoma cells. Int J Oral Sci. 1 (2009) 81-89.
  46. X. Cai, Y. Lin, C.C. Friedrich, C. Neville, I. Pomerantseva, C.A. Sundback, Z. Zhang, J.P. Vacanti, P.V. Hauschka, B.E. Grottkau. Bone marrow derived pluripotent cells are pericytes which contribute to vascularization. Stem Cell Rev. 5 (2009) 437-445.
  47. E.S. Hart, K.P. Kalra, B.E. Grottkau, M. Albright, E.G. Shannon. Discoid lateral meniscus in children. Orthop Nurs. 27 (2008) 174-179; quiz 180-171.
  48. E.S. Hart, R.J. deAsla, B.E. Grottkau. Current concepts in the treatment of hallux valgus. Orthop Nurs. 27 (2008) 274-280; quiz 281-272.
  49. E.S. Hart, B.E. Grottkau, J.C. Marino. Congenital coxa vara deformity. Orthop Nurs. 26 (2007) 349-351; quiz 352-343.
  50. E.S. Hart, B.E. Grottkau, M.B. Albright. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: don't miss this pediatric hip disorder. Nurse Pract. 32 (2007) 14, 16-18, 21.
  51. E.S. Hart, B. Luther, B.E. Grottkau. Broken bones: common pediatric lower extremity fractures--Part III. Orthop Nurs. 25 (2006) 390-407; quiz 408-399.
  52. E.S. Hart, B.E. Grottkau, G.N. Rebello, M.B. Albright. Broken bones: common pediatric upper extremity fractures--part II. Orthop Nurs. 25 (2006) 311-323; quiz 324-315.
  53. E.S. Hart, M.B. Albright, G.N. Rebello, B.E. Grottkau. Developmental dysplasia of the hip: nursing implications and anticipatory guidance for parents. Orthop Nurs. 25 (2006) 100-109; quiz 110-101.
  54. E.S. Hart, M.B. Albright, G.N. Rebello, B.E. Grottkau. Broken bones: common pediatric fractures--part I. Orthop Nurs. 25 (2006) 251-256.
  55. V. Chapman, B. Grottkau, M. Albright, A. Elaini, E. Halpern, D. Jaramillo. MDCT of the elbow in pediatric patients with posttraumatic elbow effusions. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 187 (2006) 812-817.
  56. Y. Pang, P. Cui, W. Chen, P. Gao, H. Zhang. Quantitative study of tissue-engineered cartilage with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 7 (2005) 7-11.
  57. E.S. Hart, B.E. Grottkau, G.N. Rebello, M.B. Albright. The newborn foot: diagnosis and management of common conditions. Orthop Nurs. 24 (2005) 313-321; quiz 322-313.
  58. B.E. Grottkau, H.R. Epps, C. Di Scala. Compartment syndrome in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Surg. 40 (2005) 678-682.
  59. V.M. Chapman, M. Kalra, E. Halpern, B. Grottkau, M. Albright, D. Jaramillo. 16-MDCT of the posttraumatic pediatric elbow: optimum parameters and associated radiation dose. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185 (2005) 516-521.
  60. V.M. Chapman, B.E. Grottkau, M. Albright, H. Salamipour, D. Jaramillo. Multidetector computed tomography of pediatric lateral condylar fractures. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 29 (2005) 842-846.
  61. V.M. Chapman, M. Albright, B.E. Grottkau, D. Jaramillo. Multidetector computed tomography of fracture-separation of the distal humeral epiphysis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 29 (2005) 336-338.
  62. W.K. Yassir, B.E. Grottkau, M.J. Goldberg, Costello syndrome: orthopaedic manifestations and functional health. J Pediatr Orthop. 23 (2003) 94-98.
  63. L.E. Rubin, P.B. Stein, C. DiScala, B.E. Grottkau. Pediatric trauma caused by personal watercraft: a ten-year retrospective. J Pediatr Surg. 38 (2003) 1525-1529.
  64. D. Jaramillo, T.Y. Poussaint, B.E. Grottkau. Scoliosis: evidence-based diagnostic evaluation. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 13 (2003) 335-341, xii.
  65. B.E. Grottkau, S. Noordin, S. Shortkroff, J.L. Schaffer, T.S. Thornhill, M. Spector. Effect of mechanical perturbation on the release of PGE(2) by macrophages in vitro. J Biomed Mater Res. 59 (2002) 288-293.


The Laboratory for Therapeutic 3D Bioprinting
Jackson Bldg., Room 1120
Massachusetts General Hospital
80 Blossom St.
Boston, MA 02114

Yonggang Pang, MD, PhD

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