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Webster Center for Quality and Safety

The Webster Center is dedicated to improving patient safety and maintaining a high quality of care in radiology.

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Our Mission

The mission of the Webster Center for Quality and Safety encompasses all aspects of quality and safety in radiology in addition to developing and promoting imaging methods that ensure the lowest achievable level of patient exposure to radiation.

Following the example set by our namesake, Edward (Ted) W. Webster, the Center is dedicated to improving patient safety and maintaining high quality of care in radiology. We will share our work with radiologists, technologists and other imaging scientists around the world.

The original Webster Center for Advanced Research and Education in Radiation was founded by Department of Radiology Chairman Emeritus James H. Thrall, MD to work towards a primary goal of radiation dose reduction. With guidance from Radiologist-in-Chief James A. Brink, MD, the Center has extended its goals to include:

  • An extensive slate of research
  • Publication of quality and safety practice from Mass General Imaging
  • Dedicated education initiatives including continuing education courses and a fellowship program for visiting radiologists and technologists


The Webster Center for Quality and Safety will continue to offer national and international visiting fellowships for radiologists and technologists interested in CT radiation dose as it pertains to daily clinical practice.

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Edward (Ted) W. Webster
Edward (Ted) W. Webster

The Webster Center for Quality and Safety was founded in memory of the late Edward (Ted) W. Webster, PhD (1922 - 2005), who distinguished himself as an outstanding leader, educator, and scientist during his 47 years in the Mass General Department of Radiology and on the Harvard Medical School faculty. His leadership roles included radiation safety officer, chairman of the Radiation Safety and Radioactive Drug Research Committees and the Committee on Research and director of the Division of Radiological Sciences.

He was an active member of many national and international organizations, including the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation III (BEIR III) Committee for the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council. He also contributed significantly to the works of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Council on Radiation Effects and Measurement, the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Council on Radiation Protection (ICRP), and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Committee.

In addition, Dr. Webster was a pioneer in the field of radiology education. He was instrumental in the development of the radiological physics curriculum and examination system for the American Board of Radiology and he founded and directed the New England Roentgen Ray Society's course in radiological physics which, for more than 20 years was a primary vehicle for the training of radiology residents in New England.

Research Projects

  • Contrast media extravasation in CT and MRI
  • Preventing falls in radiology department
  • Peer review in radiology
  • Management of contrast media reaction with simulation-based training
  • Contrast volume reduction in CT
  • Radiation dose reduction for dual energy CT
  • Lower radiation dose through iterative reconstruction
  • Radiation dose research in collaboration with the American College of Radiology Dose Index Registry (ACR DIR)

Abdominal Imaging

Team: Mannudeep K. Kalra

  • Protocol optimization for CT
  • Use of iterative reconstruction and automatic KV selection techniques for radiation dose reduction in abdominal CT
  • Indication based radiation dose reduction for abdominal CT protocols
  • Dual energy CT applications in abdomen
  • Radiation dose reduction with dual source dual energy CT

Cardiac Imaging

Team: Brian B. Ghoshhajra, Udo Hoffmann, Mannudeep K. Kalra

  • Radiation dose reduction with cardiac CT in adult and pediatric CT
  • CT protocol optimization and dose reduction for vascular CT

Chest Imaging

Team: Matthew D. Gilman, Jo-Anne O. Shepard, Mannudeep K. Kalra, Subba R. Digumarthy, Alexi Otrakji

  • Multi-vendor studies on chest CT under 1mSv radiation doses
  • Dual energy CT applications for thoracic imaging
  • Radiation dose reduction for dual energy CT of the chest
  • Radiation dose reduction for lung cancer screening low dose CT
  • Radiation dose reduction studies using big-data-based learning algorithms (using National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) data)

Pediatric Radiology

Team: Michael S. Gee, Mannudeep K. Kalra, Sjirk J. Westra

  • Dose-neutral applications of dual energy CT in children
  • Contrast volume reduction for pediatric CT
  • Optimization of CT protocols for 4D scanning
  • Applications of new scanner technology for radiation dose reduction in children


Team: Stuart R. Pomerantz, Rajiv Gupta

  • Dual energy CT applications for neurological imaging
  • Radiation dose reduction for CTA of head and neck vessels
  • Diagnostically Accurate Sub-mSv Head CT using iterative reconstruction techniques
  • Contrast volume reduction for neurological CT applications


Ongoing radiation-specific grants with substantial participation of Webster Center:

Minimizing Unnecessary Irradiation from Renal Colic CT Scans in the United States

Grant Number: R01 HS023778-01
Overall PI: Christopher Moore, MD, Yale University
Mass General Site PI: Mannudeep K. Kalra
Learn more

Developing and Implementing a System for Quality and Safety in Women's Imaging in Qatar

Number: NPRP91893031
Overall PI: Huda Al Naemi, PhD, Hamad General Corporation
Role: Co-investigator (Mass General Site PI: Madan Rehani, PhD; Co-investigator: Mannudeep K. Kalra, MD)  

Description: Optimizing protocol and radiation practices for CT and mammography in women in Qatar. Webster Center Description of role: Participation in review of protocol and radiation practices both remotely and on-site. In March 2018, Dr. Kalra visited Hamad General Hospital (HGH)and met several clinical and Medical Physics personnel. Provided detailed report of findings and specific modification to protocol and practices. Dr. Kalra also conducted a short workshop in March 2018 on different aspect of CT radiation and protocol optimization. Both adult and pediatric CT protocols at HGH were reviewed.

Follow-up CT Course in Qatar: After the successful initial visit, Dr. Kalra urged a dedicated CT course (lecture, interactive workshop, and live classes at the CT scanners) for Doha, Qatar. He created the curriculum of such workshop which was held in December 2018. Attended by radiologists, technologists, and medical physicists, this was immensely successful with close to 10 hours of teaching activities by Dr. Kalra.

Planned second CT course in Qatar: Following rave reviews and tremendous response, Dr. Kalra was asked to conduct a follow up course on CT protocol and radiation optimization. This majority hands-on and interactive course/workshop is planned for July 2019 in Doha, Qatar. Dr. Kalra created the curriculum for this educational activity and will handle a bulk of activities related to this course.

Educational Programs

  • 2013 Co-director, Third CT Dose Summit: Strategies for CT Scan parameters Optimization, Pheonix AZ. American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) (Funding organizations: American College of Radiology (ACR), and Medical Imaging & Technology Alliance (MITA))
  • 2015 (June 8-12, 2015) Director, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored Scientific Visit (SV) on Radiation Dose Education of radiologists & physicists from Lithuania. Massachusetts General Hospital
  • 2014- Course co-director, An online Radiology Simulation and Training Program. Do’s and Don’ts of CT radiation dose. Massachusetts General Hospital
  • 2015 Content development expert on e-module for Patient Dose Management in Computed Tomography. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria
  • 2016- Course co-director, Interpretation of Low Dose Kidney Stone CT. Massachusetts General Hospital and Yale University
  • 2016- Course co-director, Optimizing Scan Protocol and Radiation Dose in Kidney Stones CT. Massachusetts General Hospital and Yale University
  • 2016- Course Director, Quality and Risk Management Course in Radiology. Massachusetts General Hospital
  • 2017 (June 23-27, 2017) Co-Director, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored Scientific Visit (SV) on Radiation Dose Education of radiologists & physicists from 14 Asian countries (Thailand, Laos, UAE, Oman, Qatar, Israel, Vietnam, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Singapore, Philipines, Brunei). Massachusetts General Hospital

Global Initiatives


  • Participated in the IAEA-led protocol and dose optimization conference in Skopje, Northern Republic of Macedonia. Multiple lectures and site visits for hands on sessions.
  • Invited lecture at the 14th SOMATOM World Summit, June 2019, in Toronto, Canada.
  • Organization (of curriculum) and participation in the Third Conference on Protocol and Radiation Optimization in CT July 13, 2019, at Bayt Al Dhiyafah Hamad Bin Khalifa Medical City, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
  • Organization (of curriculum) and participation in the First Radiation Safety Organization in Sultan Qaboos Hospital, Muscat, Oman in September 2019 (tentative date).


  • Participation in the Conference on Making Patients and Staff Safer in Radiological Imaging. Dubai Healthcare City (DHCC); Shaikh Mohamad Bin Rashid Academic Medical Centre, Dubai, UAE, Dubai Health Authority (DHA).
  • Participation in the workshop for Radiology and Medical Physics staff on Optimization and Dose Management Issues in CT at Hamad Medical Corporation on March 12, 2018.
  • Participation in the National Training Course on optimization of procedures in diagnostic radiology June 21-23, 2018 in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Organized with collaboration of IAEA and Bosnia and Herzegovina Radiology.
  • Participation in the workshop on CT radiation dose organized by the Ministry of Health, Oman in Muscat, Oman.
  • Organization (of curriculum) and participation in the Second Conference on Protocol and Radiation Optimization in CT December 15-16, 2018 at Bayt Al Dhiyafah Hamad Bin Khalifa Medical City, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.


  • Invited lecture at the 13th SOMATOM World Summit in Singapore.
  • Invited lecture in Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.
  • Participation in the Somatom Force Symposium and Workshop in St. Paul's Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam.
  • Participation in the CT symposium at the Ho Chi Min University, Ho Chi Min, Vietnam.
  • Participation in symposium on Highlights in CT Imaging at the Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
  • Participation in the Course on Optimization in Computed Tomography. Joint program between IAEA and Bulgarian Society of Biomedical Physics and Engineering. November 8-12, 2017.
  • Participation in the Joint program of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Croatian Radiological Society, Rijeka, Croatia.


  • Participation in the National workshop on CT (CRO6015) as a Joint program of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Croatian Radiological Society, Rijeka, Croatia.
  • Participation in the Joint ICTP-IAEA Workshop on computed tomography: Quality Control, Dosimetry and Optimization, Miramare, Trieste, Italy.
  • Participation in the European Congress of Medical Physics (ECMP), Organized by European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (EFOMP), Athens, Greece.
  • Invited lectures at the Taishan Medical University, Department of Radiology, Taian, Shandong, China.


View the list of publications

Blankstein R, Okada DR, Mamuya WW. Ultra low radiation dose cardiac CT. Int. J. Cardiol. 2009.

Blankstein R, Shah A, Pale R, et al. Radiation dose and image quality of prospective triggering with dual-source cardiac computed tomography. Am. J. Cardiol. 2009;103(8):1168-1173.

Blankstein R, Bolen MA, Pale R, Murphy MK, Shah AB, Bezerra HG, Sarwar A, Rogers IS, Hoffmann U, Abbara S, Cury RC, Brady TJ. Use of 100 kV versus 120 kV in cardiac dual source computed tomography: effect on radiation dose and image quality. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010 Aug 19.

Boland GWL. The CT dose and utilization controversy: the radiologist's response. J Am Coll Radiol. 2008;5(6):696-698.

Anupindi S, Perumpillichira J, Jaramillo D, Zalis ME, Israel EJ. Low-dose CT colonography in children: initial experience, technical feasibility, and utility. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35(5):518-524.

Cantwell CP, Setty BN, Holalkere N, et al. Liver lesion detection and characterization in patients with colorectal cancer: a comparison of low radiation dose non-enhanced PET/CT, contrast-enhanced PET/CT, and liver MRI. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2008;32(5):738-744.

Ferencik M, Moselewski F, Ropers D, et al. Quantitative parameters of image quality in multidetector spiral computed tomographic coronary imaging with submillimeter collimation. Am. J. Cardiol. 2003;92(11):1257-1262.

Halliburton SS, Abbara S. Practical tips and tricks in cardiovascular computed tomography: patient preparation for optimization of cardiovascular CT data acquisition. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2007 Jul;1(1):62-5.

Hamberg LM, Rhea JT, Hunter GJ, Thrall JH. Multi-detector row CT: radiation dose characteristics. Radiology. 2003;226(3):762-772.

Hausleiter J, Raff GL, Halliburton SS, Abbara S, et. al. SCCT Guidelines on Radiation Doses and Radiation Dose Reducing Strategies in Cardiac CT Imaging. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. July 2011.

Hricak H, Brenner DJ, Adelstein SJ, Frush DP, Hall EJ, Howell RW, McCollough CH, Mettler FA, Pearce MS, Suleiman OH, Thrall JH, Wagner LK. Managing radiation use in medical imaging: a multifaceted challenge. Radiology. 2011 Mar;258(3):889-905.

Kambadakone AR, Prakash P, Hahn PF, Sahani DV. Low-dose CT examinations in Crohn's disease: Impact on image quality, diagnostic performance, and radiation dose. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;195(1):78-88.

Latchaw RE, Alberts MJ, Lev MH, et. al. Recommendations for imaging of acute ischemic stroke: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Stroke. 2009 Nov;40(11):3646-78.

Lehman SJ, Abbara S, Cury RC, et al. Significance of cardiac computed tomography incidental findings in acute chest pain. Am. J. Med. 2009;122(6):543-549.

Miller JC, Abbara S, Mamuya WS, Thrall JH, Uppot RN. Dual-source CT for cardiac imaging. J Am Coll Radiol. 2009 Jan;6(1):65-8. Review.

Moloo J, Shapiro MD, Abbara S. Cardiac computed tomography: technique and optimization of protocols. Semin Roentgenol. 2008 Apr;43(2):90-9. Review.

Mullins ME, Lev MH, Bove P, et al. Comparison of image quality between conventional and low-dose nonenhanced head CT. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25(4):533-538.

Murphy MK, Brady TJ, Nasir K, et al. Appropriateness and utilization of cardiac CT: Implications for development of future criteria. J Nucl Cardiol. 2010.

Pomerantz SR, Harris GJ, Desai HJ, Lev MH. Computed tomography angiography and computed tomography perfusion in ischemic stroke: A step-by-step approach to image acquisition and three-dimensional postprocessing. Semin. Ultrasound CT MR. 2006;27(3):243-270.

Quentin M, Kröpil P, Steiner S, Lanzman RS, Blondin D, Miese F, Choy G, Abbara S, Scherer A. Prevalence and clinical significance of incidental cardiac findings in non-ECG-gated chest CT scans. Radiologe. 2011 Jan;51(1):59-64. German

Sahani DV, Kalva SP, Hahn PF, Saini S. 16-MDCT angiography in living kidney donors at various tube potentials: impact on image quality and radiation dose. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188(1):115-120.

Sahani DV, Kambadakone AR. Crohn's disease and radiation exposure: it's time we got our act together? Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 2009;15(8):1278-1280.

Sahani DV, Yaghmai V. Advances in MDCT. Preface. Radiol. Clin. North Am. 2009;47(1):xiii-xiv.

Salamipour H, Jimenez RM, Brec SL, et al. Multidetector row CT in pediatric musculoskeletal imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35(6):555-564.

Thrall JH. Radiation exposure: politics and opinion vs science and pragmatism. J Am Coll Radiol. 2009;6(3):133-134.

Truong QA, Siegel E, Cannon CP. Cardiac CT angiography--radiation dose-how effective are we in reducing radiation dose from cardiac CT angiography? Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2009 Fall;10(4):236-9.

Taylor CM, Blum A, Abbara S. Patient preparation and scanning techniques. Radiol Clin North Am. 2010 Jul;48(4):675-86. Review.

Wesolowski JR, Lev MH. CT: history, technology, and clinical aspects. Semin. Ultrasound CT MR. 2005;26(6):376-379.

Wintermark M, Lev MH. AJNR Special Collection on CT Radiation Dose in Neuroimaging. published November 5, 2009.

Wintermark M, Albers GW, Alexandrov AV et. al. Expert consensus meeting on CT, CTA, CTP Acquisition and Post Processing. Acute stroke imaging research roadmap. Stroke. 2008 May;39(5):1621-8.

Wintermark M, Lev MH. FDA investigates the safety of brain perfusion CT. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31(1):2-3.

Kalra MK, Prasad S, Saini S, Blake MA, Varghese J, Halpern EF, Thrall JH, Rhea JT. Clinical Comparison of Standard-Dose and 50% Reduced-Dose Abdominal CT: Effect on Image Quality. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002 Nov; 179(5):1101-6. Erratum in: AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002 Dec;179(6):1645.

Sahani D, Saini S, D'Souza RV, O'Neill MJ, Prasad SR, Kalra MK, Halpern EF, Mueller P. Comparison Between Low (3:1) and High (6:1) Pitch for Routine Abdominal/Pelvic Imaging with Multislice Computed Tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2003 Mar-Apr; 27(2):105-9.

Kalra MK, Wittram C, Maher MM, Sharma A, Avinash GB, Karau K, Toth TL, Halpern E, Saini S, Shepard JA. Can Noise Reduction Filters Improve Low-Radiation-Dose Chest CT Images? Pilot Study. Radiology. 2003 Jul; 228(1):257-64. Epub 2003 May 15.

Kalra MK, Maher MM, Sahani DV, Blake MA, Hahn PF, Avinash GB, Toth TL, Halpern E, Saini S. Low-Dose CT of the Abdomen: Evaluation of Image Improvement with Use of Noise Reduction Filters Pilot Study. Radiology. 2003 Jul; 228(1):251-6. Epub 2003 May 8.

Kalra MK, Maher MM, Prasad SR, Hayat MS, Blake MA, Varghese J, Halpern EF, Saini S. Correlation of Patient Weight and Cross-Sectional Dimensions With Subjective Image Quality at Standard Dose Abdominal CT. Korean J Radiol. 2003 Oct-Dec;4(4):234-8.

Kalra MK, Maher MM, Toth TL, Kamath RS, Halpern EF, Saini S. Comparison Of Z-Axis Automatic Tube Current Modulation Technique with Fixed Tube Current CT Scanning of Abdomen and Pelvis. Radiology. 2004 Aug; 232(2):347-53.

Kalra MK, Maher MM, Toth TL, Kamath RS, Halpern EF, Saini S. Radiation from "Extra" Images Acquired with Abdominal and/or Pelvic CT: Effect of Automatic Tube Current Modulation. Radiology. 2004 Aug; 232(2):409-14.

Kalra MK, Maher MM, Blake MA, Lucey BC, Karau K, Toth TL, Avinash G, Halpern EF, Saini S. Detection And Characterization of Lesions on Low-Radiation-Dose Abdominal CT Images Postprocessed with Noise Reduction Filters. Radiology. 2004 Sep; 232(3):791-7.

Kalra MK, Maher MM, Kamath RS, Horiuchi T, Toth TL, Halpern EF, Saini S. Sixteen-Detector Row CT of Abdomen and Pelvis: Study for Optimization of Z-Axis Modulation Technique Performed in 153 Patients. Radiology. 2004 Oct; 233(1):241-9.

Rizzo SM, Kalra MK, Maher MM, Blake MA, Toth TL, Saini S. Do Metallic Endoprostheses Increase Radiation Dose Associated With Automatic Tube-Current Modulation in Abdominal-Pelvic MDCT? A Phantom and Patient Study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005 Feb; 184(2):491-6.

Kalra MK, Maher MM, D'Souza RV, Rizzo S, Halpern EF, Blake MA, Saini S. Detection of Urinary Tract Stones at Low-Radiation-Dose CT with Z-Axis Automatic Tube Current Modulation: Phantom and Clinical Studies. Radiology. 2005 May; 235(2):523-9.

Chapman VM, Kalra M, Halpern E, Grottkau B, Albright M, Jaramillo D. 16-MDCT of the Posttraumatic Pediatric Elbow: Optimum Parameters and Associated Radiation Dose. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005 Aug; 185(2):516-21.*

Dalal T, Kalra MK, Rizzo SM, Schmidt B, Suess C, Flohr T, Blake MA, Saini S. Metallic Prosthesis: Technique to Avoid Increase in CT Radiation Dose with Automatic Tube Current Modulation in a Phantom and Patients. Radiology. 2005 Aug; 236(2):671-5.

Kalra MK, Rizzo S, Maher MM, Halpern EF, Toth TL, Shepard JO, Aquino SL. Chest CT Performed with Z-Axis Modulation: Scanning Protocol And Radiation Dose. Radiology. 2005 Oct; 237(1):303-8.

Rizzo SM, Kalra MK, Schmidt B, Raupach R, Maher MM, Blake MA, Saini S. CT Images of Abdomen and Pelvis: Effect of Nonlinear Three-Dimensional Optimized Reconstruction Algorithm on Image Quality and Lesion Characteristics. Radiology. 2005 Oct; 237(1):309-15.

Campbell J, Kalra MK, Rizzo S, Maher MM, Shepard JO. Scanning Beyond Anatomic Limits of the Thorax in Chest CT: Findings, Radiation Dose, and Automatic Tube Current Modulation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005 Dec; 185(6):1525-30.

Rizzo S, Kalra M, Schmidt B, Dalal T, Suess C, Flohr T, Blake M, Saini S. Comparison of Angular and Combined Automatic Tube Current Modulation Techniques with Constant Tube Current CT of the Abdomen and Pelvis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006 Mar; 186(3):673-9.

Namasivayam S, Kalra MK, Waldrop SM, Mittal PK, Small WC. Multidetector Row CT Angiography of Living Related Renal Donors: Is There a Need for Venous Phase Imaging? Eur J Radiol. 2006 Sep; 59(3):442-52. Epub 2006 Apr 18.

Uppot RN, Sahani DV, Hahn PF, Kalra MK, Saini SS, Mueller PR. Effect of Obesity on Image Quality: Fifteen-Year Longitudinal Study for Evaluation of Dictated Radiology Reports. Radiology. 2006 Aug; 240(2):435-9.

Namasivayam S, Kalra MK, Pottala KM, Waldrop SM, Hudgins PA. Optimization of Z-Axis Automatic Exposure Control for Multidetector Row CT Evaluation of Neck and Comparison with Fixed Tube Current Technique for Image Quality and Radiation Dose. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006 Nov-Dec; 27(10):2221-5.

Sirineni GK, Kalra MK, Pottala K, Waldrop S, Syed M, Tigges S. Effect of Contrast Concentration, Tube Potential and Reconstruction Kernels on MDCT Evaluation of Coronary Stents: An In Vitro Study. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2007 Apr; 23(2):253-63.

Li J, Udayasankar UK, Toth TL, Seamans J, Small WC, Kalra MK. Automatic Patient Centering For MDCT: Effect on Radiation Dose. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007 Feb; 188(2):547-52.

Dang P, Kalra MK, Schultz T, Freshman D, Dreyer K. Natural Language Processing with Online Analytic Processing for Assessing Recommendations in Radiology Reports. J Am Coll Radiol. 2008 Mar;5(3):197-204.

Li JH, Toth TL, Udayasankar U, Seamans J, Small WC, Kalra MK. Application Of Automatic Vertical Positioning Software to Reduce Radiation Exposure in Multi-Detector Row CT of the Chest. Invest Radiol. 2008 Jun;43(6):447-52.

Udayasankar UK, Li J, Baumgarten DA, Small WC, Kalra MK. Acute Abdominal Pain: Value of Non-Contrast Enhanced Ultra-Low-Dose Multi-Detector Row CT as a Substitute for Abdominal Radiographs. Emerg Radiol. 2009 Jan;16(1):61-70.

Shapiro MD, Dodd JD, Kalva S, Wittram C, Hsu J, Nasir K, Liu B, Nagurney JT, Kalra MK, Nichols JH, Cury RC, Abbara S, Tawakol A, Brady TJ, Hoffmann U. A comprehensive electrocardiogram-gated 64-slice multidetector computed tomography imaging protocol to visualize the coronary arteries, thoracic aorta, and pulmonary vasculature in a single breath hold. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2009 Mar-Apr;33(2):225-32.

Kalra MK, Dang P, Blake MA, Singh S, Saini S, Shepard J. In-plane shielding for CT: effect of off-centering, automatic exposure control and shield to surface distance. Korean Journal of Radiology 2009 Mar-Apr;10(2):156-63.

Singh S, Kalra MK, Moore, M, Shailam R, Toth TL, Grant E, Westra S. Assessment of Pediatric CT Protocols Adapted to Patient’s Size, Clinical Indication and Number of Prior Studies: An Exploratory Study. Radiology 2009 Jul;252(1):200-8.

Prakash P, Kalra MK, Digumarthy S, Hsieh J, Pien H, Singh S, Gilman M, Shepard J. Radiation Dose Reduction with Chest CT Using Adaptive. Statistical Iterative Reconstruction Technique: Initial Experience. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2010 Jan;34(1):40-5.

Karsli T, Kalra MK, Self JL, Rosenfeld JA, Butler S, Simoneaux S. What physicians think about the need for informed consent for communicating the risk of cancer from low-dose radiation. Pediatric Radiology 2009;39(9):917-25

Prakash P, Kalra MK, Gilman M, Shepard JO, Digumarthy S. Is weight-based adjustment of automatic exposure control necessary for the reduction of chest CT radiation dose? Korean J Radiol. 2010;11(1):46-53

Prakash P, Kalra MK, Ackman J, Hseih J, Gilman M, Shepard JO. Chest CT for Diffuse Lung Disease Using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction Technique. Radiology 2010 Jul;256(1):261-9

Prakash P, Kalra MK, Kambadakone A, Pien H, Hsiech J, Blake MA, Sahani DV. Reducing Abdominal CT Radiation Dose with Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction Technique. Invest Radiol. 2010;45(4):202-10

Singh S, Kalra MK, Hsieh J, Licato P, Do S, Pien H, Black MA. Comparison of adaptive statistical iterative and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques for abdominal CT. Radiology 2010; 257:373-83.

Sangwaiya MJ, Kalra MK, Sharma A, Halpern EF, Shepard JA, Digumarthy SR. Dual-energy computed tomographic pulmonary angiography: a pilot study to assess the effect on image quality and diagnostic confidence. J Comput Assist Tomogr.2010;34(1):46-51.

Singh S, Kalra MK, Hsieh J, Gilman M, Shepard J, Digumarthy S. Comparison of adaptive statistical iterative and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques for chest CT. Radiology 2010; 259(2):565-73

Li J, Udayasankar UK, Tang X, Toth TL, Small WC, Kalra MK. Patient size compensated automatic tube current modulation in multi-detector row CT of the abdomen and pelvis. Acad Radiol. 2011;18(2):205-11.

Singh S, Kalra MK, Ackman JB, Digumarthy SR, Gilman M, Back A, Shepard JO. Role of non linear adaptive filters for improving image quality and dose reduction in abdomen CT. World Journal of Radiology 2012;3:256-65

Singh S, Kalra MK, Bhangle AS, Saini A, Gervais DA, Westra SJ, Thrall JH. Pediatric CT protocols: radiation dose reduction with hybrid iterative reconstruction. Radiology 2012;263:537-46

Kim MS, Singh S, Halpern E, Saini S, Kalra MK. Relation between patient centering, mean CT numbers and noise in abdominal CT: Influence of anthropomorphic parameters. World Journal of Radiology 2012;28:102-8.

Kröpil P, Rojas CA, Ghoshhajra B, Lanzman RS, Miese FR, Scherer A, Kalra M, Abbara S. Prospectively ECG-triggered High-pitch Spiral Acquisition for Cardiac CT Angiography in Routine Clinical Practice: Initial Results. J Thorac Imaging. 2012;27(3):194-201.

Ghoshhajra BB, Engel LC, Major GP, Verdini D, Sidhu M, Károlyi M, Abbara S, Hoffmann U, Kalra M, Brady TJ. Direct chest area measurement: A potential anthropometric replacement for BMI to inform cardiac CT dose parameters? J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2011;5(4):240-6.

Ghoshhajra BB, Engel LC, Major GP, Goehler A, Techasith T, Verdini D, Do S, Liu B, Li X, Sala M, Kim MS, Prakash P, Sidhu M, Corsini E, Banerji D, Wu D, Abbara S, Truong Q, Brady TJ, Hoffmann U, Kalra MK. Evolution of Coronary Computed Tomography Radiation Doses at a Tertiary Referral Center. Am J Med. 2012 Aug;125(8):764-72.

Borgen L, Kalra MK, Lærum F, Hachette IW, Fredriksson CH, Sandborg M, Smedby O. Application of adaptive nonlinear 2D and 3D post-processing filters on low dose abdominal CT. Acta Radiologica 2012;53:335-42

Kalra MK, Quick P, Singh S, Sandborg M, Persson A. Whole spine CT for evaluation of scoliosis in children: Feasibility of Sub-milli-Sievert scanning protocol. Acta Radiol. 2013;54(2):226-30

Singh S, Kalra MK, Do S, Thibault JB, Pien H, Connor OJ, Blake MA. Comparison of hybrid and pure iterative reconstruction techniques with conventional filtered back projection: Dose reduction potential in the abdomen. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2012;36:347-53

Kalra MK, Woisetschläger M, Dahlstrom N, Singh S, Lindblom M, Choy G, Quick P, Blake MA, Schmidt B, Sedlmair M, Persson A. Radiation Dose Reduction with Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction Technique for abdominal CT. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2012; 36:339-46

Kalra MK, Woisetschläger M, Dahlstrom N, Singh S, Digumarthy S, Do S, Pien H, Quick P, Schmidt B, Sedlmair M, Shepard J, Persson A. Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction Technique of low dose chest CT: Effect on image quality and radiation dose. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;201(2):W235-44

Singh S, Petrovic D, Jamnik E, Aran S, Pourjabbar S, Hird M, Bradley S, Choy G, Kalra MK. Effect of localizer radiograph on radiation dose associated with automatic exposures control: Human cadaver and patient study. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2014;38(2):293-8.

Ghoshhajra BB, Engel LC, Károlyi M, Sidhu MS, Wai B, Barreto M, Shanmugam U, Hoffmann U, Brady TJ, Kalra M, Abbara S. Cardiac Computed Tomography Angiography With Automatic Tube Potential Selection: Effects on Radiation Dose and Image Quality. J Thorac Imaging. 2013;28(1):40-8

Singh S, Digumarthy SR, Back A, Shepard JA, Kalra MK. Radiation dose reduction for chest CT with non-linear adaptive filters. Acta Radiol. 2013;54(2):169-74.

Pandharipande PV, Eisenberg JD, Lee RJ, Gilmore ME, Turan EA, Singh S, Kalra MK, Liu B, Kong CY, Gazelle GS. Patients with testicular cancer undergoing CT surveillance demonstrate a pitfall of radiation-induced cancer risk estimates: the timing paradox. Radiology 2013;266:896-904

Ghoshhajra BB, Lee AM, Engel LC, Celeng C, Kalra MK, Brady TJ, Hoffmann U,Westra SJ, Abbara S. Radiation Dose Reduction in Pediatric Cardiac Computed Tomography: Experience from a Tertiary Medical Center. Pediatr Cardiol. 2014 Jan;35(1):171-9.

Pourjabbar S, Singh S, Padole A, Sharma A, Khawaja R, Lira D, Kalra MK. What is the minimal radiation dose that can be used for detecting pleural effusion? American Journal of Roentgenology. 2014;203(1):118-22.

Pourjabbar S, Singh S, Singh AK, Johnston JP, Shenoy-Bhangle A,Do S, Padole A, Blake MA, Persson A, Kalra MK. Preliminary results: Prospective clinical study to assess image based iterative reconstruction for abdominal CT acquired at two radiation dose levels. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2014 Jan-Feb;38(1):117-22.

Westra SJ, Li X, Gulati K, Singh S, Liu B, Kalra MK, Abbara S. Entrance skin dosimetry and size-specific dose estimate from pediatric chest CTA. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2014;8(2):97-107

Khawaja RDA, Singh S, Lira D, Bippus R, Do S, Padole A, Pourjabbar S, Koehler T, Shepard JO, Kalra MK. Role of Compressive Sensing Technique in Dose Reduction for Chest CT: A Prospective Blinded Clinical Study. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2014 Sep-Oct;38(5):760-7

Eisenberg JD, Gilmore ME, Kalra MK, Kong CY, Pandharipande PV. Prioritizing examination-centered over patient-centered dose reduction: a hazard of institutional "benchmarking". AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 May;202(5):1062-8.

Pourjabbar S, Singh S, Kulkarni N, Muse V, Digumarthy SR, Khawaja RD, Padole A, Do S, Kalra MK. Dose reduction for chest CT: comparison of two iterative reconstruction techniques. Acta Radiol. 2015 Jun;56(6):688-95

Do S, Karl WC, Singh S, Kalra M, Brady T, Shin E, Pien H. High fidelity system modeling for high quality image reconstruction in clinical CT. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 12;9(11):e111625.

Pourjabbar S, Singh S, Padole A, Saini A, Blake MA, Kalra MK. Size-specific dose estimates: Localizer or transverse abdominal computed tomography images? World J Radiol. 2014:28;6(5):210-7

Khawaja RD, Singh S, Gilman M, Sharma A, Do S, Pourjabbar S, Padole A, Lira D, Brown K, Shepard JO, Kalra MK. Computed Tomography (CT) of the Chest at Less Than 1 mSv: An Ongoing Prospective Clinical Trial of Chest CT at Submillisievert Radiation Doses with Iterative Model Image Reconstruction and iDose4 Technique. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2014;38:613-9

Khawaja RDA, Vettiyl B, Singh S, Gee M, Lim R, Westra S, Kalra M. Simplifying size-specific radiation dose estimates in pediatric CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015;204:167-76.

Zhang D, Padole A, Li X, Singh S, Khawaja R, Lira D, Liu T, Shi J, Otrakji A, Kalra MK, Xu G, Liu B. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans. Medical Physics 2014 Sep;41(9):091911

Eisenberg JD, Gervais DA, Singh S, Kalra MK, Sabir SH, Paul AB, Pandharipande PV. Radiation Exposure From CT-Guided Ablation of Renal Masses: Effects on Life Expectancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015 Feb;204(2):335-42.

Padole A, Singh S, Ackman JB, Wu C, Do S, Pourjabbar S, Khawaja RD, Otrakji A, Digumarthy S, Shepard JA, Kalra M. Submillisievert chest CT with filtered back projection and iterative reconstruction techniques. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Oct;203(4):772-81.

Khawaja R, Madan R, Singh S, Padole A, Pourjabbar S, Digumarthy S, Kalra MK. Ultra Low-Dose Chest CT using Filtered Back Projection: Comparison of 80-, 100- and 120 kVp Protocols in a Prospective Randomized Study. European Journal of Radiology 2014;83:1934-44.

Khawaja R, Singh S, Blake M, Harsinghani M, Choy G, Karosmangulu A, Padole A, Do S, Brown K, Thompson R, Morton T, Raihani N, Kalra MK. Ultra-low dose abdominal MDCT: using a knowledge-based Iterative Model Reconstruction technique for substantial dose reduction in a prospective clinical study.Eur J Radiol. 2015 Jan;84(1):2-10.

Yin Z, Yao Y, Montillo A, Wu M, Edic PM, Kalra M, De Man B. Acquisition, pre-processing and reconstruction of ultra-low dose volumetric CT scout for organ-based CT scan planning. Med Phys. 2015 May;42(5):2730-9.

Vadvala H, Kim P, Mayrhofer T, Pianykh O, Kalra M, Hoffmann U, Ghoshhajra B. Coronary CTA using scout-based automated tube potential and current selection algorithm, with breast displacement results in lower radiation exposure in females compared to males. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2014 Dec;4(6):470-9.

Padole A, Singh S, Lira D, Blake MA, Pourjabbar S, Khawaja RD, Choy G, Saini S, Do S, Kalra MK. Assessment of Filtered Back Projection, Adaptive Statistical, and Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction for Reduced Dose Abdominal Computed Tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2015 Jul-Aug;39(4):462-7.

De Man B, Wu M, FitzGerald P, Kalra M, Yin Z. Dose reconstruction for real-time patient-specific dose estimation in CT. Med Phys. 2015 May;42(5):2740-51.

Gao Y, Lin H, Liu T, Li X, Liu B, Khawaja R, Kalra M, Caracappa P, Xu X. SU-F-207-10: Simulation Study of Patient Off-Centering Effect On Organ Dose in Chest CT Scan. Med Phys. 2015 Jun;42(6):3544

Gao Y, Liu T, Li X, Liu B, Kalra M, Caracappa P, Xu X. TU-EF-204-09: A Preliminary Method of Risk-Informed Optimization of Tube Current Modulation for Dose Reduction in CT. Med Phys. 2015 Jun;42(6):3622.

Khawaja RD, Singh S, Blake M, Harisinghani M, Choy G, Karosmanoglu A, Padole A, Pourjabbar S, Do S, Kalra MK. Ultralow-Dose Abdominal Computed Tomography: Comparison of 2 Iterative Reconstruction Techniques in a Prospective Clinical Study. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2015 Jul-Aug;39(4):489-98.

Li X, Shi JQ, Zhang D, Singh S, Padole A, Otrakji A, Kalra MK, Xu XG, Liu B. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations. Med Phys. 2015 Nov;42(11):6274-82

Maher MM, Kalra MK, Toth TL, Wittram C, Saini S, Shepard J. Application of Rational Practice and Technical Advances for Optimizing Radiation Dose for Chest CT. J Thorac Imaging. 2004 Jan;19(1):16-23. Review.

Kalra MK, Maher MM, Toth TL, Hamberg LM, Blake MA, Shepard JO, Saini S. Strategies for CT Radiation Dose Optimization. Radiology. 2004 Mar;230(3):619-28. Epub 2004 Jan 22. Review.

Kalra MK, Maher MM, Saini S. Multislice CT: Update on Radiation and Screening. Eur Radiol. 2003 Dec;13 Suppl 5:M129-33. Review.

Kalra MK, Maher MM, Rizzo S, Kanarek D, Shepard JO. Radiation Exposure From Chest CT: Issues And Strategies. J Korean Med Sci. 2004 Apr;19(2):159-66. Review. Erratum in: J Korean Med Sci. 2004 Jun;19(3):487. Shephard JA [corrected to Shepard JO]. Review.

Kalra MK, Maher MM, D'Souza R, Saini S. Multidetector Computed Tomography Technology: Current Status and Emerging Developments. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2004 Jul-Aug;28 Suppl 1:S2-6. Review.

Kalra MK, Maher MM, Rizzo S, Saini S. Radiation Exposure and Projected Risks with Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography Scanning: Clinical Strategies and Technologic Developments for Dose Reduction. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2004 Jul-Aug;28 Suppl 1:S46-9. Review.

Kalra MK, Maher MM, Toth TL, Schmidt B, Westerman BL, Morgan HT, Saini S. Techniques and Applications of Automatic Tube Current Modulation for CT. Radiology. 2004 Dec;233(3):649-57. Epub 2004 Oct 21. Review.

Salamipour H, Jimenez RM, Brec SL, Chapman VM, Kalra MK, Jaramillo D. Multidetector Row CT in Pediatric Musculoskeletal Imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 2005 Jun;35(6):555-64. Epub 2005 Mar 18. Review.

Kalra MK, Naz N, Rizzo SM, Blake MA. Computed Tomography Radiation Dose Optimization: Scanning Protocols and Clinical Applications of Automatic Exposure Control. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2005 Sep-Oct;34(5):171-81. Review

Kalra MK, Rizzo SM, Novelline RA. Reducing Radiation Dose in Emergency Computed Tomography with Automatic Exposure Control Techniques. Emerg Radiol. 2005 Jul;11(5):267-74. Epub 2005 May 12. Review.

Kalra MK, Singh S, Blake MA. CT of the Urinary Tract: Turning Attention to Radiation Dose. Radiol Clin North Am. 2008 Jan;46(1):1-9, v. Review.

Kalra MK, Brady TJ. Current Status and Future Developments in Cardiac CT. Journal of Cardiac Computed Tomography 2008;2(2):71-80.

Do S, Kalra MK, Liang Z, Karl WC, Brady TJ, Pien H. Noise Properties of Iterative Reconstruction Techniques in Low Dose CT Scans. SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7258 Medical Imaging 2009: Physics of Medical Imaging

Kalra MK, Singh S, Thrall JH, Mahesh M. Pointers for optimizing radiation dose in abdominal CT protocols. J Am Coll Radiol. 2011 Oct;8(10):731-4.

Singh S, Kalra MK, Thrall JH, Mahesh M. Pointers for optimizing radiation dose in chest CT protocols. J Am Coll Radiol. 2011 Sep;8(9):663-5.

Singh S, Kalra MK, Thrall JH, Mahesh M. Pointers for optimizing radiation dose in head CT protocols. J Am Coll Radiol. 2011 Aug;8(8):591-3.

Singh S, Kalra MK, Thrall JH, Mahesh M. CT radiation dose reduction by modifying primary factors. J Am Coll Radiol. 2011 May;8(5):369-72.

Singh S, Kalra MK, Thrall JH, Mahesh M. Automatic exposure control in CT: applications and limitations. J Am Coll Radiol. 2011 Jun;8(6):446-9.

Sung MK, Singh S, Kalra MK. Current status of low dose multi-detector CT in the urinary tract. World J Radiol. 2011 Nov 28;3(11):256-65.

Do S, Singh S, Kalra MK, Karl WC, Brady TJ, Pien H. High-order noise analysis for low dose iterative image reconstruction methods: ASIR, IRIS, and MBAI. Published: 3 March 2011; 6 pages. SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7961 Medical Imaging 2011: Physics of Medical Imaging

Singh S, Kalra MK, Thrall JH, Mahesh M. Pointers for optimizing radiation dose in pediatric CT protocols. J Am Coll Radiol. 2012 Jan;9(1):77-9.

Lee S, Shima S, Singh S, Kalra MK, Kim HJ, Do S. Co-registered image quality comparison in hybrid iterative reconstruction techniques: SAFIRE and SafeCT. SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8668. Medical Imaging 2013: Physics of Medical Imaging.

ingh S, Kalra MK, Ali Khawaja RD, Padole A, Pourjabbar S, Lira D, Shepard JA, Digumarthy SR. Radiation dose optimization and thoracic computed tomography. Radiol Clin North Am. 2014 Jan;52(1):1-15

Trattner S, Pearson GD, Chin C, Cody DD, Gupta R, Hess CP, Kalra MK, Kofler JM Jr, Krishnam MS, Einstein AJ. Standardization and Optimization of CT Protocols to Achieve Low Dose. J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 Mar;11(3):271-8.

Singh S, Khawaja RD, Pourjabbar S, Padole A, Lira D, Kalra MK. Iterative image reconstruction and its role in cardiothoracic computed tomography. J Thorac Imaging. 2013 Nov;28(6):355-67.

Boland GW, Duszak R Jr, Kalra M. Protocol design and optimization. J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 May;11(5):440-1.

Khawaja R, Singh S, Westra S, Lim R, Kalra MK, Gee M. Dose Reduction in Pediatric Abdominal CT: Use of Iterative Reconstruction Techniques across Different CT Platforms. Pediatr Radiol. 2015 Jul;45(7):1046-55.

Lira D, Singh S, Padole A, Kalra MK. Tube potential and CT radiation dose optimization. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015 Jan;204(1):W4-10.

Singh S, Kalra MK. Standardized CT protocols and nomenclature: Better, but not yet there. Pediatr Radiol. 2014 Oct;44 Suppl 3:440-3.

Padole A, Khwaja R, Kalra MK, Singh S. CT radiation dose and iterative reconstruction. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015 Apr;204(4):W384-92.

Murugan VA, Chatfield MB, Rehani M, Kalra MK. ACR DIR: A User's Guide for Cardiothoracic Radiologists: Part 2: How to Interpret Your DIR Report. J Thorac Imaging. 2015;30(6):W69-72.

Murugan VA, Kalra MK, Rehani M, Digumarthy SR. Lung Cancer Screening: Computed Tomography Radiation and Protocols. J Thorac Imaging. 2015 Sep;30(5):283-9

Murugan VA, Chatfield MB, Rehani M, Kalra MK. ACR DIR: A user's guide for cardiothoracic radiologists Part 1: Dose Index Registry (DIR) - what it means and does for CT? J Thorac Imaging. 2015 Nov;30(6):W66-8

Otrakji A, Digumarthy SR, Lo Gullo R, Flores EJ, Shepard JA, Kalra MK. Dual-Energy CT: Spectrum of Thoracic Abnormalities. Radiographics. 2016 Jan-Feb;36(1):38-52.

Fintelmann FJ, Bernheim A, Digumarthy SR, Lennes IT, Kalra MK, Gilman MD, Sharma A, Flores EJ, Muse VV, Shepard JA. The 10 Pillars of Lung Cancer Screening: Rationale and Logistics of a Lung Cancer Screening Program. Radiographics. 2015 Nov-Dec;35(7):1893-908.

Kalra MK, Sodickson AD, Mayo-Smith WW. CT Radiation: Key Concepts for Gentle and Wise Use. Radiographics. 2015 Oct;35(6):1706-21.

Tabari A, Lo Gullo R, Kalra MK. Recent Advances in CT technology: Cardiopulmonary Imaging Applications. J Thorac Imaging (In press).

Webster Center Takes On Radiation-dose Reduction