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Instructor in Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School
Assistant in Anesthesia, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Mass General
Director, Institute for Medical Simulation
Education Director, Center for Medical Simulation

Research Areas

  • Health care simulation: Debriefing, reflective practice, psychological safety, assessment
  • Effective feedback as part of the teaching and learning process
  • High performance, high stress teamwork

Description of Research

Simulation and Debriefing: Enhancing clinicians’ ability to reflect on and improve their teaching skills using experiential, simulation-based learning is the primary focus of my research. I study how clinicians become “reflective practitioners”—people capable of examining and adjusting their cognitive routines and emotional reactions to improve patient safety and quality and clinical teaching. I conduct research and teach about the qualities and preconditions of reflective practice in health care simulation, especially “debriefing.”  Debriefing is a rigorous post-simulation dialogue that generates insights and behavior change to improve clinical practice. I am the lead developer of a debriefing assessment instrument.

High Performance, High Stress Teamwork: Health care providers occasionally find themselves in critical junctures of patient care when the stakes are high and time is short. Based on nearly 25 years experience in aviation and health care, I focus on developing training solutions for health care providers.

Selected Publications

  • Rudolph, JW, Simon, R., Dufresne, R.L., & Raemer, D. B. 2006.  There's no such thing as "non-judgmental" debriefing: A theory and method for debriefing with good judgment. Simulation in Healthcare.1 (1): 49-55.
  • Rudolph, JW, Simon, R, Raemer, DB, Eppich WE2008. "Debriefing as formative assessment: closing performance gaps in medical education." Academic Emergency Medicine 15(11): 1110-1116.
  • Brett-Fleegler M, Rudolph JW, Eppich WE, Monuteaux M, Fleegler E, Cheng A, Simon R. Debriefing for Simulation in Healthcare: Development and Psychometric Properties. Simulation in Healthcare, 2012, 7(5): 288-294.
  • St. Pierre M, Hofinger G, Buerschaper C, Simon R. Crisis Resource Management in Acute Care Settings: Human Factors, Team Psychology, and Patient Safety in a High Stakes Environment, 2nd Edition. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2011.