Cholangitis is swelling (inflammation) of the bile duct system. In most cases, cholangitis is caused by a bacterial infection. The infection often happens suddenly. But, in some cases, it may be long-term (chronic).
The Autoimmune and Cholestatic Liver Clinic at Massachusetts General Hospital provides specialized care for patients with autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and IgG4-Associated liver disease.
The Pediatric Liver and Biliary Disease Center at Mass General for Children diagnoses and treats infants, children and adolescents with diverse hepatic, biliary and pancreatic disorders.
What is cholangitis?
Cholangitis is swelling (inflammation) of the bile duct system that results from infection.
The bile duct system carries bile from your liver and gallbladder into the first part of your small intestine (the duodenum).
In most cases, cholangitis is caused by a bacterial infection. The infection often happens suddenly (acute). But in some cases, it may be long-term (chronic).
What causes cholangitis?
There are several health problems that may cause an infection in your bile duct system.
In most cases, cholangitis is caused by a blocked duct somewhere in your bile duct system. The blockage may be from:
Lumps of solid material (gallstones)
A narrowing of a duct that may happen after surgery
Inflammatory conditions of the liver and bile ducts
A parasite infection
Trauma to the belly (abdomen)
Cholangitis may also be caused when you have:
A backflow of bacteria from your small intestine
A blood infection (bacteremia)
A test done to check your liver or gallbladder (such as a test where a thin tube or endoscope is put into your body)
The infection causes pressure to build up in your bile duct system. It may spread to your liver or into your bloodstream if it’s not treated.
Who is at risk for cholangitis?
If you have had gallstones, you are at greater risk for cholangitis. Other risk factors include:
Having HIV or certain other autoimmune conditions
Traveling to countries where you might be exposed to worms or parasites
Having any recent medical procedures to your bile duct area
What are the symptoms of cholangitis?
Symptoms may be medium to severe. Each person’s symptoms may vary.
Symptoms may include:
Pain in the upper right part of your belly (abdomen)
Loss of appetite
Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
Nausea and vomiting
Low blood pressure
Not as alert
The symptoms of cholangitis may look like other health problems. Always see your healthcare provider to be sure.
How is cholangitis diagnosed?
The pain from cholangitis can feel a lot like the pain from gallstones.
To be sure you have cholangitis, your healthcare provider will look at your past health and give you a physical exam. They may also use other tests.
You may have blood tests, including:
Complete blood count. This test measures your white blood cell count. You may have a high white blood cell count if you have an infection.
Liver function tests. This is a group of special blood tests. They can tell if your liver is working correctly.
Blood cultures. These tests see if you have a blood infection.
You may also have imaging tests, including:
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. A needle is put through your skin and into your liver. Dye is put into your bile duct so that it can be seen clearly on X-rays.
ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography). This is used to find and treat problems in your liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas. It uses X-ray and a long, flexible tube with a light and camera at one end (an endoscope). The tube is put into your mouth and throat. It goes down your food pipe (esophagus), through your stomach, and into the first part of your small intestine (the duodenum). A dye is put into your bile ducts through the tube. The dye lets the bile ducts be seen clearly on X-rays.
CT scan. A CT scan may be done with a dye that is swallowed or injected through an IV. This will show the abdomen and pelvis, including the bile drainage area. It can help determine why there is a blockage.
Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. This test is used to look for any problems in your abdomen. It can show if there are gallstones in your bile duct. The test is done from outside your body. It does not involve putting a tube (endoscope) into your body. It uses a magnetic field and radio frequency to make detailed pictures.
Ultrasound (also called sonography). This test creates images of your internal organs on a computer screen using high-frequency sound waves. It is used to see organs in your belly, such as the liver, spleen, and gallbladder. It also checks blood flow through different vessels. It can be done outside the body (external). Or it may be done inside the body (internal). If internal, it is called an endoscopic ultrasound.
How is cholangitis treated?
It is important to get a diagnosis right away. Most people with cholangitis feel very sick. They see their healthcare provider or go to the emergency room.
If you have cholangitis, you will likely be in the hospital for a few days. You will be given fluids in your veins. You will also have pain medicine and bacteria-fighting medicine (antibiotics).
You may also need to have the fluid in your bile duct drained and to find the cause of any blockage. In most cases, this is done by a method called ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography).
To drain your bile duct using ERCP, a long, thin, flexible tube (endoscope) is put in your mouth. The scope goes down your food pipe (esophagus) and into your stomach. It passes into the first part of your small intestine (the duodenum) and into the bile ducts. The healthcare provider can see the inside of these organs and ducts on a video screen. The video screen is connected to a camera in the scope. Sometimes a tube is left to the outside to drain bile. In this situation, a small tube (called a T-tube) is passed into the ducts to drain fluid. This tube is brought out through the skin. This lets fluid drain out until the infection and inflammation clear up.
You may also have firm tubes (stents) put into the bile ducts to keep them open. Gallstones can also be removed. In most cases, these things can be done using the ERCP scope.
You may need surgery if treatment doesn’t work or if you are getting worse. Surgery will open your ducts to drain the bile and fluid that are building up.
If your cholangitis is caused by blocked gallstones, you will likely need to have your gallbladder removed (cholecystectomy) after treatment of the cholangitis.
Key points about cholangitis
Cholangitis is swelling (inflammation) of the bile duct system.
The bile duct system carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the first part of your small intestine (the duodenum).
In most cases, cholangitis is caused by a bacterial infection.
Treatment includes draining the bile duct and finding out what is causing the blockage. It also includes fluid replacement, antibiotics, and pain management.
People who have had gallstones are at greater risk for cholangitis.
If initial treatments don't work, surgery may be needed.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.
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