Adamantinoma is a very rare malignant bone tumor, which gets its name from a jaw tumor because both tissue types are very similar. The difference between lesions in the jaw and those in the long bones is that adamantinoma of long bones can metastasize. It occurs in all sexes and all ages, especially between the years of 20-50. Ninety percent of the lesions occur in the tibia, but it has also been found in the humerus, ulna, femur and other bones.
Symptoms include a mild pain or dull ache that has been present for years. Usually a firm, tender mass can be found in the tibial area with thin and shiny skin over the tumor mass. On x-ray, the adamantinoma is clearly outlined, varies in length, has a bubbly appearance and causes the width of the bone to increase. The tissue type is fibrous which replaces the marrow and cortex. The lesion may also have some cystic (fluid-like) areas and hemorrhage (bleeding). Histologic diagnosis can be tricky and it is sometimes difficult to distinguish from other tumors. Treatment is by surgical wide resection of the lesion with allograft reconstruction. Amputation may be necessary due to tumor location and/or recurrence.